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越来越多的女人不想要孩子的原因

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可能是因为我住在以关爱儿童,睦邻友好著名的纽约州布鲁克林帕克坡,在这里我每次去超级市场都被迫躲避15个推婴儿车的邻居。或是可能因为我已经32岁了,而看起来每个我认识的女人都已经有了自己的孩子。或是可能因为我生长在德州农村,那里有好多怀孕少女。不管是什么原因,我对最近一篇调查报告感到惊讶,那是佩尤研究中心调查。报告显示,美国妇女不愿意生育的比例由1976年的10%到现在几乎翻两番,达到18%。
Maybe it's because I live in the famously child-friendly neighborhood of Park Slope, in Brooklyn, N.Y., where I'm forced to dodge 15 strollers every time I go to the grocery store. Or maybe it's because I'm 32 and it seems every other woman I know is having a baby. Or maybe it's because I grew up in rural Texas, surrounded by pregnant teenagers. No matter the reason, I was genuinely surprised to read the recent Pew Research Center study showing that the share of American women who are skipping out on motherhood has nearly doubled since 1976, rising from 10 percent of the population to 18 percent.
我其实非常高兴看到越多的女性选择不生孩子。但是并不是所有人站在我这一边。根据佩尤的调查,38%的美国人谴责不生育对社会有负面影响。而两年前,这个数字是29%。那么,是什么使得越来越多女性选择不当妈妈呢?根据社会保守人士的说法,合法堕胎是生育率下降的罪魁祸首。迈克·哈克比告诉记者马克思·布鲁门萨尔,如果没有合法堕胎政策,美国根本不需要海外劳工。一些反对自由堕胎人士紧急呼吁,警告“人口的严冬”(指家庭人口数减少)将导致西方文明的终结。
Personally, I was happy to see that more women feel free to forgo childbearing. But not everyone shares my enthusiasm. According to Pew, 38 percent of Americans now denounce childlessness as bad for society. That's up from 29 percent just two years ago. So what's behind the increase in women choosing the non-mom route? According to social conservatives, legal abortions are to blame for declining birth rates. Mike Huckabee told reporter Max Blumenthal that if it weren't for abortion, there would be no need for immigrants to come work in the United States. Some anti-choicers are issuing dire warnings about a "demographic winter" bringing an end to Western civilization.
他们可能有些夸张了,女性可以自由堕胎并不是导致她们不要孩子的原因。这里有一个数据,61%的选择堕胎的妇女,她们已经有了一个孩子。根据2004年古特马赫研究所的调查,大部分选择堕胎的妇女认为在条件允许情况下她们也有要孩子的可能。然而这并不意味着象罗伊·范·维德文章中写的“不生育妇女不存在巨大影响力”。女权主义人士为了保护和宣传合法堕胎政策,举办了主题为“选择(堕胎)”的全国巡回演讲。这个活动让不要孩子的决定看起来理所当然,也让那些从来都没想要孩子的女性欣然接受她们的决定是无比正确。
Conservative histrionics aside, women who have abortions aren't the ones causing the uptick in childlessness. After all, 61 percent of women who have abortions already have one child. And according to a 2004 survey by the Guttmacher Institute, most childless women who have abortions say they are open to the possibility of having kids under different circumstances. However, that doesn't mean that the passage of Roe v. Wade had no impact on the upturn in childless women. Defense of legal abortion led feminists to create a national discourse around the concept of "choice," which helped legitimize the decision to remain childless. This created a space for women who never wanted children to embrace their true desires.
一部分这些新潮的自我意识可能意味着女性正在放弃做母亲的选择,因为我们最终还是勉强承认,这确实不是必要的选择。上周《纽约》杂志封面故事刊登文章说,因为母亲们觉得没有孩子的生活方式更加吸引人,所以生儿育女变得越来越难以接受。1988年,只有39%的美国人不同意“没有孩子就没有完整的人生”的说法,而现在达到了59%。
Part of this new self-awareness might mean that women are forsaking motherhood because we're finally admitting that it isn't all it's cracked up to be. As last week's New York magazine cover story documented, parenthood is becoming increasingly miserable because of the exploding expectations placed on mothers—making the child-free lifestyle seem all the more attractive. In 1988, only 39 percent of Americans disagreed with the notion that the childless "lead empty lives." Now a majority—59 percent—disagree that childlessness automatically means you're unfulfilled.
不过,选择不生孩子的妇女仍然面临这一系列负面的看法。人们说她们太自私,暗示她们太有事业心和自我为中心从而忘了要在生育年龄期间生孩子。但是没有孩子的好处是显而易见的,只要环顾一下我的公寓,我看到家具没有被小孩子破坏的痕迹,没有小孩子的打扰,没有满地的玩具。但是因为我几乎没有做过关于选择不生育的调查,我想我应该在网上做一个选择不生孩子的女性的民意调查,以便找到她们做这个决定的原因。
Still, a woman who chooses to remain childless continues to face a series of negative stereotypes, from claims that she's selfish to implications that she's too career-minded and self-centered to remember to breed before it's too late. But clearly there are upsides to childlessness. Just looking around my own apartment, I can see the value in furniture that's gone unruined, cats that have gone unbothered, and a distinct lack of toys cluttering up my floor. But because there is very little research on deliberate childlessness, I thought I would poll childless-by-choice women online from all over the country to find out their reasons for the decision.
我采访的妇女们证实了不要孩子的想法是有巨大影响力的。29岁的娜塔丽开玩笑说:“在我了解关于性与生育之前,我认为怀孕是女人结婚后自然就发生的事情,年幼的我很害怕这样的事情发生。”澳大利亚歌手玛丽柯莱尔与凯莉米诺戈表达了相似的观点:“我从来没有觉得自己要在乡村的别墅中进入到墨守成规的婚姻中。”
The women I spoke to confirmed my suspicion that the perception of choice had an impact. Natalie, age 29, joked, "Before I knew about sex and reproduction, I thought that pregnancy happened automatically when women got married, and my young self was terrified at the prospect!" Marie Claire captured Kylie Minogue expressing a similar sentiment to Natalie's: "I never had the feeling I was made for a conventional marriage with a house in the suburbs," the Australian singer said.
大多数人觉得她们不要孩子是完全正常的,觉得她们被女人的生物钟和普遍都认为要生孩子的观点而困惑。30岁的盖伊尔幽默地说道:“当我看到婴儿时候,我的卵巢就是不舒服地颤动。”作家兼电影制作人劳拉斯格特,在她正在进行的大型课题研究“选择无子女的生活”中发现,在被调查者中,排名最高的不要孩子的理由是“觉得自己缺乏做父母的天性”,其他理由还包括“我们仅仅喜欢两个人的生活”和“不想肩负起照顾孩子的责任”。
Most felt their desire not to have children is perfectly normal, and were frustrated by stereotypes about women's biological clocks and the universal desirability of children. Gayle, age 30, drolly observed, "My ovaries do not stir when I see a baby." Author and filmmaker Laura Scott, who is working on a larger project examining the lives of the childless by choice has found that "lack of maternal/paternal instinct" rated in the top six reasons that respondents gave for their decision, along with reasons such as we "love our life [or] our relationship, as it is" and we "do not want to take on the responsibility."
佩尤的调查显示,谴责“不要孩子”将对社会产生负面影响的人数有所增长,所以我问一些选择不生育的女性对于她们的决定,她们感受到产生了多大的社会影响力。大多数认为非但无害而且可能还是有益的。很少有人讲到这有助于自然环境或者女性自己的经济利益,却提出越来越多人不生育对孩子本身是有好处的。
Because the Pew research showed an increase in people denouncing childlessness as bad for society, I also asked these childless women how they felt about the social impact of their decision. Most believed that it wasn't harmful to society and could, in fact, be beneficial. But few spoke about benefits to the environment or women's pocketbooks. Instead, childless women argued that increasing childlessness is good … for the children.
34岁的丹娜振振有辞地说:“许多孩子活得很糟糕或者被遗弃,许多都是寄养环境中长大。” 27岁的塔沙很赞成,说她身边有不少人还没有准备就糊里糊涂的就生下了小孩子,现在小孩子就受罪了。她愤怒地说:“不是每个人都能当一个称职地父母,许多人不应该有孩子。”
Dana, age 34, made this case forcefully. "Many children are treated bad or abandoned. Some live their entire lives in foster care." Tasha, age 27, concurred, noting how many people she's known who had kids simply because they thought it was what you do, and now make their children suffer for it. "Not everyone will be a good parent," she argued. "More people should be child-free."
她们争辩说选择不要孩子某些情况下是有些自私,但是不仅仅是她们自私。娜塔丽赞同考虑手头的开销而不生孩子是显得有点自私,但是另一方面,“当我问起我朋友们是为什么她们要生孩子或者想生孩子,回答基本上都是‘不知道’或者‘我想将来有我宝贝爱我’或者‘我想将来老了有人照顾我’,这些回答都显得很苍白很自私。”
Not only did the childless not see their choice as inherently selfish, they argued that the choice to have children could be considered selfish in some cases. Natalie agreed that her attachment to her disposable income could be considered selfish but said, on the other hand, "When I ask friends of mine who have/want kids what their reasons are, the answers range from 'I don't know' to 'I want someone to love me' to 'I want someone to take care of me in my old age,' which are not only also selfish but poorly reasoned."
这些选择不要孩子的妇女难道不是这个新世界的先驱吗?成为父母是一种积极的选择而不是成人世界的固定模式。就象佩尤调查显示,不生育的人群曾经都是受高等教育的,而现在其他部分人数正在赶超上来。可能将来这一代人将向珍妮弗安妮斯顿一样公开宣布自己拒绝怀孕,并且想知道如果这样做是不是还会被另眼想看。
Could these childless women be harbingers of a new world, one in which parenthood is considered an active choice and not simply the default state of adulthood? As the Pew research shows, childlessness was once the domain of the highly educated, but now every other segment of society is catching up. Perhaps future generations will look at phenomena like the Jennifer Aniston tabloid womb obsession and wonder how it was possible that anyone could have once cared so much if some women chose not to have babies.
标签:孩子 女人
128
2010-08-03 20:35 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • Guest 说:

    That the reason why the population is decreasing in so many country. It' s result in increasing number of elderly all over the world

    2010-08-07 22:18 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
  • Guest 说:

    10%到18%是翻两番?????汗。。。

    2010-08-18 18:14 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 板凳
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