在线词典,在线翻译

文化不是性暴力的理由

所属:成长励志 作者:网络转载 阅读:3614 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

我第一次到东刚果的第一个月,就听到许多恐怖故事,有强迫吃人,甚至放火烧死整个村庄的居民。二战后最残酷的战争就发生在这里。之后,我已不会被轻易震惊。但与一名救援工人的谈话彻底将我震晕!
A month into my first trip to eastern Congo, site of the deadliest conflict since World War II, I had heard plenty of horror stories — from forced cannibalism to the burning alive of the inhabitants of entire villages. I was no longer easily shocked. But one exchange with an aid worker stopped me cold.
2007年2月,我到达坦噶尼喀湖边的小镇巴拉卡,这个小镇到处是刚果士兵和联合国援助工人。我同一位帮联合国维持治安的欧洲妇女交谈,她头发凌乱,衣衫不整。热情的向我描述她为了说服在邻国坦桑尼亚避难的难民重返家园的视频项目。
I arrived in Baraka, a town on Lake Tanganyika that was overrun with Congolese soldiers and international aid workers, in February 2007. I asked a disheveled European woman working with the United Nations about security. She enthusiastically described her pet video project, to convince refugees in neighboring Tanzania that it was safe to return home.
她说,“国外军队已撤离,仅仅偶尔发生强奸或抢劫,没有袭击事件发生。”
“Foreign militias are gone,” she said. “Just rapes and looting for the moment. No attacks.”
我感到非常之震惊,我问,“你认为强奸不是安全威胁?”
Stunned, I asked, “You don’t consider rape a security threat?”
她回答:“强奸在这里非常普遍,这里有文化因素。”
“Rape here is so common,” she said. “It’s cultural.”
这是我第一次听到群众在刚果被强奸被认为是“文化因素”,以后我还将听到许多次。
That was the first of many times I would hear mass rape in Congo dismissed as “cultural.”
刚果的性暴力是地球上最为严重的。联合国估计自1998年冲突爆发以来,有数百万妇女被轮奸,蹂躏,充当性奴。
The sexual violence in Congo is among the worst on the planet. The U.N. estimates that hundreds of thousands of women have been gang-raped, tortured and held as sexual slaves since the conflict began in 1998.
这里的武装组织像黑社会一样,为了控制东刚果的矿产资源而打仗。为了控制地盘,士兵把强奸作为一个可供选择的武器。
That’s when armed groups began behaving like mafias, battling for control of the minerals in eastern Congo. To control territory, militias use rape as their weapon of choice.
五月份,美国参议员通过一项金融监管法案,其中有条条款要求上市公司须保证不购买刚果民兵控制的“冲突矿产”。这样的努力应当欢迎,如果不算晚的话。
In May, the U.S. Senate included a provision in its financial regulation bill requiring publicly traded companies to ensure that “conflict minerals” are not purchased from militia-controlled mines in Congo. Such efforts are welcome, if grossly overdue.
尽管如此,我们在西方呆久了,我们更容易将强奸理解为陌生文化的一部分,而非我们可帮助消除的战争的工具。往往,我们将所有的刚果男人被当成敌人,而非持枪威胁刚果人民的士兵。给刚果的混乱和暴力扣上“男人与女人”之战的标签或认为危机是“文化”因素造成的,我们对刚果男人有深刻的偏见。我们传送暗含侮辱的信息:实在可惜,不过,你们的人民就这样。
Still, we in the West too often find it easier to perceive rape as an accepted part of an unfamiliar culture rather than as a tool of war that we could help banish. Too often, the enemy becomes all Congolese men rather than men with guns terrorizing the Congolese people. By casting the chaos and violence as “men vs. women” or dismissing the crisis as “cultural,” we do a profound injustice to Congolese men. Rather than help, we send an implicit insult: It’s a pity, but, well…it’s just who you people are.
这种看法广泛存在。我专职为刚果女性工作,发现我花费太多精力为刚过男人辩解,无论是在花园就餐时与许多人探讨“非洲部落的强奸仪式”或与一名支持“刚果的性暴力根植于文化之中”的人权活动分子在研讨会上辩论。
This perception is widespread. I work full-time for Congolese women, and I find myself devoting an inordinate amount of energy to defending Congolese men, whether arguing with a gazillionaire at a backyard barbeque over “Africa’s tribal rape rituals” or sitting on a panel with a human rights activist who waxes on about “the cultural roots of the sexual violence in Congo.”
联合国秘书长战争冲突中性暴力特别代表马格特.瓦尔斯特伦(Margot Wallstrom),最近将这类想法描述为“假设性暴力是传统,而非选择策略。”
Margot Wallstrom, the U.N. secretary general’s special representative on sexual violence in conflict, recently described such thinking as the “lingering assumption that sexual violence is a tradition, rather than a tactic of choice.”
任何一个刚果人都会告诉你强奸不是“传统”。正如现在随处可见一样,战争前也确会发生。但随着战争的来临,发生数量骤升。民兵和刚果士兵更像将把性暴力当做武器。由于未加抑制,饱受战争摧毁的东刚果强奸风靡。这并未使强奸成为一种文化,而使实施强奸更为容易。这两者是不同的。
Any Congolese will tell you rape is not “traditional.” It did occur in Congo before the war, as it does everywhere. But the proliferation of sexual violence came with the war. Militias and Congolese soldiers alike now use sexual violence as a weapon. Left unchecked, sexual violence has festered in Congo’s war-ravaged east. This does not make rape cultural. It makes it easy to commit. There is a difference.
分析人士常用“免罪文化”来形容刚果。在非洲冲突地区工作了25年的约翰·普伦德加斯特(John Prendergast)解释说:“法律规则已被毁,犯罪分子行凶时不再惧怕被定罪或处罚。随着时间的流逝,导致社会法律和社会结构的进一步崩溃。”
Analysts often use the phrase “culture of impunity” to describe Congo. John Prendergast, who has worked in African conflict zones for 25 years, explains: “The rule of law breaks down and perpetrators commit crimes without fear of conviction or punishment. Over time, this leads to further breakdown of societal codes and the very social fabric of a community.”
媒体,援助工人和活动分子好像从未讲述由于拒绝强奸而被杀害的刚果男人的事迹。在采访数百刚果女性时,我听到无数关于男人宁愿子弹穿透头颅,也不愿亵渎自己的孩子,姐妹或母亲的故事。在巴拉卡,一名幸存者回忆说:“我们要让我哥哥强奸我。他拒绝了,被杀害,他们就强奸了我。”
The media, aid workers and activists alike have consistently failed to tell the stories of Congolese men who were killed by fighters because they refused to commit rape. In interviews with hundreds of women, I heard countless stories of men who chose to take a bullet in the head, literally, rather than violate their child, sister or mother. In Baraka, one survivor recalled: “They tried to make my older brother rape me. He refused and was killed. So they raped me.”
将刚果的性暴力描述为“文化”不只是冒犯,而且非常危险。
Describing the violence in Congo as “cultural” is more than offensive. It is dangerous.
那名将性暴力视为文化因素的欧洲救援工人暗示刚果女性应当期待被强奸。在这种情况下,她只向返回的难民警告极端的安全威胁就算完成其职责。
The European aid worker who dismissed the violence as “cultural” implied that Congolese women should expect to be raped. In so doing, she dismissed her responsibility to so much as warn returning refuges about the extreme security threat.
2007年之后一天,我碰到20个刚果女性,他们都是近六个月从难民营返回的。这段时间内,半数曾遭强奸。
Later that day in 2007, I met 20 Congolese women who had returned from refugee camps in the last six months. In that time, half had been raped.
瓦尔斯特伦(Wallstrom )先生最近与挪威外交大臣施特劳(Jonas Gahr Store)合著的论文中解释道,“性暴力在文化上相对合法,施暴者并不感到羞耻。当你接受强奸是一种文化,自然而然就会实施强奸。这就给施暴者提供了保护伞,并使得世界领导人对性暴力视而不见,将其视为不变之事实。”
“Cultural relativism legitimizes the violence and discredits the victims, because when you accept rape as cultural, you make rape inevitable,” Ms. Wallstrom explained in a recent opinion essay co-authored with the Norwegian foreign minister, Jonas Gahr Store. “This shields the perpetrators and allows world leaders to shrug off sexual violence as an immutable — if regrettable — truth.”
当我们就性暴力谴责所有刚果男人时,不仅暗示在非洲这片土地上,强奸古已有之。还回避了问题之关键,部分是由于西方人今天所扮演的角色。
When we blame all Congolese men for sexual violence, not only do we imply that rape is inherent to the African landscape, we avoid critical questions, particularly regarding the role that we in the West play.
是谁对12年的群众强奸保持沉默,对暴行视而不见?我们!
Who has been silent during 12 years of mass rape and off-the-charts atrocities? We have.
是谁对需要刚果的矿物质的最新电脑处理器和智能手机的渴求而对流血事件提供资金支持?是我们!或许是无意间,但确实是我们干的!
Who funds the bloodshed with our hunger for the latest computer processor and smart phone produced with minerals from Congo? We do. Perhaps unwittingly, but we do.
是谁帮助刚果的士兵获得枪支弹药?我们!
Who helped the fighters get their guns? We did.
这使得我们无法采取下面这些基本措施来结束危机:国际社会协作来切断民兵领导,他们中的一些人在欧洲或美国居住;要求科技公司的每件产品都保证不含冲突地区之资源;积极地计划通过公正有责任的措施来结束这种免罪文化。
This prevents us from taking the basic steps required to end the crisis: a coordinated international effort to choke off the militia leadership, some of whom reside in Europe and the United States; requirements that technology companies spend the extra penny per product that would guarantee conflict-free gadgets; and an aggressive plan to end the culture of impunity through justice and accountability measures.
当我们给刚果的强奸贴上“文化”的标签时,我们使自己置身事外。这是个文化议题,我们的。
When we label rape in Congo “cultural,” we let ourselves off the hook. And that is a cultural issue. Ours.
标签:文化
15
2010-07-07 23:31 编辑:kuaileyingyu
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有0条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章