哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院副教授汉娜·赖利·鲍尔斯（Hannah Riley Bowles）说，“当一位女性令人信服地谈成更高薪酬时，她也为其他女性以后的谈判扫清了道路。”
“When a woman negotiates persuasively for highercompensation, she clears the path for other women to follow,” saysHannah Riley Bowles an associate professor at Harvard’s Kennedy Schoolof Government.
Even now, when women represent half the work force, they’re still paidconsiderably less than men — and part of that pay gap may be a resultof what happens at the salary negotiation table.
That’s assuming that women make it to the table, since research showsthat they are less likely to ask for raises. Even when they do, theirrequests may be perceived as overly demanding or less agreeable.
“We have found that if a man and a woman both attempt to negotiate forhigher pay, people find a women who does this, compared to one who doesnot, significantly less attractive,” said Hannah Riley Bowles,an associate professor at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, whohas conducted numerous studies on gender, negotiation and leadership.“Whereas with the guy, it doesn’t seem to matter.”
So what’s a woman to do if she feels her work merits a raise?
A new study concludes that women need to take a different approach thanmen. Women, it suggests, should frame their requests in more nuancedways to avoid undermining their relationship with their boss.
You may be asking yourself, as I did, whether negotiating in ways morefavorable for women means that we’re just succumbing to stereotypes —or whether the ends justify the means.
“People associate men with higher pay because men tend to holdhigher-paying and higher-level positions than women,” Ms. Riley Bowlessaid. “When a woman negotiates persuasively for higher compensation,she clears the path for other women to follow.”
根据妇女政策研究院（Institute for Women's Policy Research）的研究，尽管一般来说，职业女性比职业男性接受了更多教育，但是，全职工作的女性每年所挣工资只有男性工资的77%，这比1965年的59%提高了一些。
Even though working women tend to be more educated, on average, thanworking men, females who work full time only earn about 77 cents forevery dollar that men earn annually, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. That’s up from about 59 cents in 1965.
Part of the pay gapcan be easily explained away. Women are more likely to leave the workforce to care for children, for example, so they end up with feweryears of experience. Men also tend to work in higher-paying occupationsand industries.
“But what you find is that when you pull out all of those factors, youstill have about 40 percent of the wage gap — or 9.2 cents —unexplained,” said Ariane Hegewisch, a study director at the institute.
Academic research on gender and negotiation suggests that part of theunexplained gap may be tied, at least in part, to the negotiatingprocess itself. It may be that some women have lower pay expectations.Men, on the other hand, have been found to be more likely to negotiatehigher starting salaries.
The work by Ms. Riley Bowles and her peers suggests that women in thework force can use specific advice. Here are some of their suggestions:
BE PROACTIVE If you believe you deserve a raise, don’tsit around and wait for someone to notice. “A lot of women, and this isquite commonly found, think, ‘As long as I work really, really hard,someone will notice and they will pay me more,’ ” said Karen J. Pine, apsychology professor at the University of Hertfordshire in Britain andco-author of “Sheconomics” (Headline Publishing Group, 2009). But“people don’t come and notice.”
You also want to think about the best time to approach your boss. Itmay make sense to approach him or her after an annual performancereview, said Evelyn F. Murphy, president of the WAGE Project,a nonprofit organization, who runs negotiation seminars for women. “Or,if you just took on a major responsibility or won an award.”
BE PREPARED Doing your research pays, literally. Astudy found that men and women who recently earned a master’s degree inbusiness negotiated similar salaries when they had clear informationabout how much to ask for.
But in industries where salary standards were ambiguous, women acceptedpay that was 10 percent lower, on average, than men. “In ourexperiments, we found that with ambiguous information, women set lessambitious goals,” said Ms. Riley Bowles, who ran the study. “They askedfor less in a competitive negotiation and got less.”
That theory also holds in other areas where there aren’t setexpectations, like executive bonuses and stock options. “You get biggergender gaps in those less standard forms of pay,” she added.
因此，你需要做好准备。Payscale.com和Salary.com这样的信息网站有助于你找到自己所处地理区域的某个特定职位的薪水标准。 Glassdoor.com 和 Vault.com能为你提供公司内部的信息——员工们在网上分享自己的工资信息。
That’s why you need to be prepared. Informational Web sites like Payscale.com and Salary.com can help uncover what people are being paid for a particular position in your geographic area. And Glassdoor.com and Vault.com provide intelligence on pay inside a company — employees share their salaries online.
Part of your preparation may also include talking to peers. Butremember that women tend to be less connected to male networks in theworkplace and are more likely to compare themselves to people theythink are similar, Ms. Riley Bowles said. That means they may becomparing their salaries with other women.
“If a woman asks her girlfriends how much they are paid and a guy askshis guy friends, Jane and Jim will come up with different numbers,” Ms.Riley Bowles added.
TAILOR NEGOTIATIONS This is where the women may wantto use a different strategy. A new study by Ms. Riley Bowles shows thatwomen are more likely to be successful if they explain why theirrequest is appropriate, but in terms that also communicate that theycare about maintaining good relationships at work. “The trick is tryingto do both of these things at the same time and in a way that feelsauthentic and fits within the norms of the company,” she added.
Using this approach, the study found, women were more likely to begranted a raise without harming relationships, at least in anexperimental setting. The results were consistent for women negotiatingwith other women and with men.
Some of the language used in the study provided an explanation on howto explain why you’re making the request now — “My team leader advisedme to do this” — while at the same time communicating that you aretaking the boss’s position into account: “What do you think?”
The study doesn’t suggest specific language, but offers some general outlines.
Instead of explaining why you deserve a raise directly, for instance,frame it in terms of why it makes sense for the organization or theperson you’re trying to persuade. “Make the company the focus,” shesaid.
And if you’re thinking about using an outside offer to help negotiate araise, take heed. It’s effective, but Ms. Riley Bowles said her studieshave found that it tends to leave a more negative impression on women.“Women may need to be more strategic than men about how they raise anoutside offer so that it doesn’t put them in a negative light,” sheadded.
ANTICIPATE Try to envision what kinds of objectionsyour boss may have, Ms. Murphy said, and think about what your responsemight be. “There is no single way through this,” she added. “It’slargely reactive once you start the process.”
If you’re unsuccessful, ask your boss for recommendations on what youcould do to move to the next level in your job. That way, “you arestill in control and are still being constructive,” Ms. Murphy said.“If you trust your own language and your own ability to perceive thesepotential roadblocks or damaging outcomes, then you will find your waythrough them.”
NEGOTIATE AT HOME Before you even start negotiatingfor a raise, or a promotion, consider how it might affect your life athome — but don’t assume that one has to come at the expense of theother. Working women who double as caregivers still carry adisproportionate load of household chores, even as men have begunshouldering more responsibilities. Try to re-examine some of theseroles and think about how new divisions of household labor may helpeach partner’s situation at work, Ms. Riley Bowles suggested.
Some people believe the negotiations at home may be more challengingthen those in the workplace. “That is the big secret in our culture,”said Paula Hogan, a Milwaukee-based financial plannerwho works with a career counselor in her practice. “The workplace hasbecome increasingly gender-neutral and at home there is still a lot ofold thinking.”
BE CREATIVE If you have family responsibilities, ithelps to consider alternatives like flexible work schedules. “Be sureyou are thinking as creatively as possible for win-win solutions,” Ms.Riley Bowles said.
And remember that it’s your responsibility to suggest these solutions(or to seek out companies known for considering them). “They are notgoing to come to you and say, ‘Gosh, I notice you have three kids now.Would you like Tuesdays off?’ ” said Ms. Hogan. “It’s your job topresent the business plan.”
2010-05-18 16:49 编辑：kuaileyingyu
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