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哈佛大学肯尼迪政府学院副教授汉娜·赖利·鲍尔斯(Hannah Riley Bowles)说,“当一位女性令人信服地谈成更高薪酬时,她也为其他女性以后的谈判扫清了道路。”
“When a woman negotiates persuasively for highercompensation, she clears the path for other women to follow,” saysHannah Riley Bowles an associate professor at Harvard’s Kennedy Schoolof Government.
Even now, when women represent half the work force, they’re still paidconsiderably less than men — and part of that pay gap may be a resultof what happens at the salary negotiation table.
That’s assuming that women make it to the table, since research showsthat they are less likely to ask for raises. Even when they do, theirrequests may be perceived as overly demanding or less agreeable.
“We have found that if a man and a woman both attempt to negotiate forhigher pay, people find a women who does this, compared to one who doesnot, significantly less attractive,” said Hannah Riley Bowles,an associate professor at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, whohas conducted numerous studies on gender, negotiation and leadership.“Whereas with the guy, it doesn’t seem to matter.”
So what’s a woman to do if she feels her work merits a raise?
A new study concludes that women need to take a different approach thanmen. Women, it suggests, should frame their requests in more nuancedways to avoid undermining their relationship with their boss.
You may be asking yourself, as I did, whether negotiating in ways morefavorable for women means that we’re just succumbing to stereotypes —or whether the ends justify the means.
“People associate men with higher pay because men tend to holdhigher-paying and higher-level positions than women,” Ms. Riley Bowlessaid. “When a woman negotiates persuasively for higher compensation,she clears the path for other women to follow.”
根据妇女政策研究院(Institute for Women's Policy Research)的研究,尽管一般来说,职业女性比职业男性接受了更多教育,但是,全职工作的女性每年所挣工资只有男性工资的77%,这比1965年的59%提高了一些。
Even though working women tend to be more educated, on average, thanworking men, females who work full time only earn about 77 cents forevery dollar that men earn annually, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. That’s up from about 59 cents in 1965.
Part of the pay gapcan be easily explained away. Women are more likely to leave the workforce to care for children, for example, so they end up with feweryears of experience. Men also tend to work in higher-paying occupationsand industries.
研究院研究部主任阿里安娜·赫格威奇(Ariane Hegewisch)说,“可是,你会发现,排除所有这些因素之后,仍有约40%的工资差距说不清楚原因。”
“But what you find is that when you pull out all of those factors, youstill have about 40 percent of the wage gap — or 9.2 cents —unexplained,” said Ariane Hegewisch, a study director at the institute.
Academic research on gender and negotiation suggests that part of theunexplained gap may be tied, at least in part, to the negotiatingprocess itself. It may be that some women have lower pay expectations.Men, on the other hand, have been found to be more likely to negotiatehigher starting salaries.
The work by Ms. Riley Bowles and her peers suggests that women in thework force can use specific advice. Here are some of their suggestions:
积极主动 如果你认为自己值得加薪,就别闲呆着,等别人来通知你。“许多女性认为‘只要我实实在在地努力工作,就有人会注意到,他们就会付给我更多报酬’,这是常见的现象。”英国赫特福德大学心理学教授,《女性经济议题》的合著者凯伦·J·派恩说。但是“人们不会过来通知你。”
BE PROACTIVE If you believe you deserve a raise, don’tsit around and wait for someone to notice. “A lot of women, and this isquite commonly found, think, ‘As long as I work really, really hard,someone will notice and they will pay me more,’ ” said Karen J. Pine, apsychology professor at the University of Hertfordshire in Britain andco-author of “Sheconomics” (Headline Publishing Group, 2009). But“people don’t come and notice.”
You also want to think about the best time to approach your boss. Itmay make sense to approach him or her after an annual performancereview, said Evelyn F. Murphy, president of the WAGE Project,a nonprofit organization, who runs negotiation seminars for women. “Or,if you just took on a major responsibility or won an award.”
做好准备 进行准确的研究很有利。一项研究发现,当明确表示要求得到多少薪水时,刚获得商务硕士学位的男性和女性谈成了相似的工资。
BE PREPARED Doing your research pays, literally. Astudy found that men and women who recently earned a master’s degree inbusiness negotiated similar salaries when they had clear informationabout how much to ask for.
But in industries where salary standards were ambiguous, women acceptedpay that was 10 percent lower, on average, than men. “In ourexperiments, we found that with ambiguous information, women set lessambitious goals,” said Ms. Riley Bowles, who ran the study. “They askedfor less in a competitive negotiation and got less.”
That theory also holds in other areas where there aren’t setexpectations, like executive bonuses and stock options. “You get biggergender gaps in those less standard forms of pay,” she added.
因此,你需要做好准备。Payscale.com和Salary.com这样的信息网站有助于你找到自己所处地理区域的某个特定职位的薪水标准。 和 Vault.com能为你提供公司内部的信息——员工们在网上分享自己的工资信息。
That’s why you need to be prepared. Informational Web sites like and can help uncover what people are being paid for a particular position in your geographic area. And and provide intelligence on pay inside a company — employees share their salaries online.
Part of your preparation may also include talking to peers. Butremember that women tend to be less connected to male networks in theworkplace and are more likely to compare themselves to people theythink are similar, Ms. Riley Bowles said. That means they may becomparing their salaries with other women.
赖利·鲍尔斯女士补充说,“如果女性问自己的女性朋友她们的工资是多少,而男性问他的男性朋友,那么简(Jane )和吉姆(Jim)会提出不同的数目。”
“If a woman asks her girlfriends how much they are paid and a guy askshis guy friends, Jane and Jim will come up with different numbers,” Ms.Riley Bowles added.
准备谈判 这时,女性也许要采取不同的策略。赖利·鲍尔斯女士进行的一项新研究显示,如果女性说明为什么自己的要求是恰当的,而且明确表示,自己很愿意维护良好的工作关系,她们更可能取得成功。“其诀窍在于,要以令人感觉真实而且符合公司准则的方式,努力同时做到这两点。”她又说。
TAILOR NEGOTIATIONS This is where the women may wantto use a different strategy. A new study by Ms. Riley Bowles shows thatwomen are more likely to be successful if they explain why theirrequest is appropriate, but in terms that also communicate that theycare about maintaining good relationships at work. “The trick is tryingto do both of these things at the same time and in a way that feelsauthentic and fits within the norms of the company,” she added.
Using this approach, the study found, women were more likely to begranted a raise without harming relationships, at least in anexperimental setting. The results were consistent for women negotiatingwith other women and with men.
Some of the language used in the study provided an explanation on howto explain why you’re making the request now — “My team leader advisedme to do this” — while at the same time communicating that you aretaking the boss’s position into account: “What do you think?”
The study doesn’t suggest specific language, but offers some general outlines.
Instead of explaining why you deserve a raise directly, for instance,frame it in terms of why it makes sense for the organization or theperson you’re trying to persuade. “Make the company the focus,” shesaid.
And if you’re thinking about using an outside offer to help negotiate araise, take heed. It’s effective, but Ms. Riley Bowles said her studieshave found that it tends to leave a more negative impression on women.“Women may need to be more strategic than men about how they raise anoutside offer so that it doesn’t put them in a negative light,” sheadded.
预先做好应对准备 墨菲女士说,试着想象你的老板会提出哪种反对意见,想想你该如何应对。“解决这个问题没有单一的方法。”她接着说,“一旦开始谈判,就主要看你的反应了。”
ANTICIPATE Try to envision what kinds of objectionsyour boss may have, Ms. Murphy said, and think about what your responsemight be. “There is no single way through this,” she added. “It’slargely reactive once you start the process.”
If you’re unsuccessful, ask your boss for recommendations on what youcould do to move to the next level in your job. That way, “you arestill in control and are still being constructive,” Ms. Murphy said.“If you trust your own language and your own ability to perceive thesepotential roadblocks or damaging outcomes, then you will find your waythrough them.”
在家谈判 在真正开始加薪或升职谈判之前,要考虑到这么做对你的家庭生活有何影响——不过,不要设想必须有一方以另一方为代价。即使男性已经开始担负更多的家务责任,兼做看护人的职业女性仍会承担不成比例的家务重担。赖利·鲍尔斯建议,尝试去重新审视这些角色,考虑考虑如何重新分配家务劳动,才有利于每个伴侣的工作处境。
NEGOTIATE AT HOME Before you even start negotiatingfor a raise, or a promotion, consider how it might affect your life athome — but don’t assume that one has to come at the expense of theother. Working women who double as caregivers still carry adisproportionate load of household chores, even as men have begunshouldering more responsibilities. Try to re-examine some of theseroles and think about how new divisions of household labor may helpeach partner’s situation at work, Ms. Riley Bowles suggested.
有人认为,在家谈判可能比在工作场所谈判更具挑战性。“那是我们文化中的大秘密。”保拉·霍根(Paula Hogan)说。她是密尔沃基的理财顾问,在自己的事务所与一名职业顾问共事。“职场已经逐渐变得中性化,而家里仍然存在许多旧思想。”
Some people believe the negotiations at home may be more challengingthen those in the workplace. “That is the big secret in our culture,”said Paula Hogan, a Milwaukee-based financial plannerwho works with a career counselor in her practice. “The workplace hasbecome increasingly gender-neutral and at home there is still a lot ofold thinking.”
富有创造力 如果你负有家庭责任,那么考虑一种弹性工作时间这样的替代方案会很有帮助。赖利·鲍尔斯女士说,“你一定要尽可能创造性地考虑双赢的解决方案。”
BE CREATIVE If you have family responsibilities, ithelps to consider alternatives like flexible work schedules. “Be sureyou are thinking as creatively as possible for win-win solutions,” Ms.Riley Bowles said.
And remember that it’s your responsibility to suggest these solutions(or to seek out companies known for considering them). “They are notgoing to come to you and say, ‘Gosh, I notice you have three kids now.Would you like Tuesdays off?’ ” said Ms. Hogan. “It’s your job topresent the business plan.”
标签:工资 女性 职场
2010-05-18 16:49 编辑:kuaileyingyu