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男人为何热爱战争?

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西奥多·罗斯福需要战争,几乎任何战争都行。 1886年,当27岁的他只是达科他领地的牧场主时,就建议增加“一些骑射火枪手,对付爱找麻烦的墨西哥。”他对朋友众议员亨利·卡伯特·洛奇(Henry Cabot Lodge)写到:“如果战争不可避免,你能马上给我发电报吗?” 1889年,出于对军事“戒备”的不安,他写信给英国外交官塞西尔·春稻(Cecil Spring-Rice):“坦白地讲,我不知道是否应该对我们与德国间的冲突感到遗憾;纽约和其他一些沿海城市被袭击,恰恰说明需要建立强大的海防体系。” 罗斯福喜欢夸张,但他显然是认真的。他对春稻写到,“如果我们首先发起攻击,我想最终我们就要替德国皇帝担心了。” 几年后的1894年,他在给世交鲍勃·弗格森的信中说,他期盼“一场全民参与的海盗探险,将西班牙人从古巴驱逐出去,将英国人从加拿大驱逐出去。”
Theodore Roosevelt wanted a war, and almost any war would do. In 1886, when he was a 27-year-old gentleman rancher in the Dakota Territory, he proposed raising "some companies of horse riflemen out here in the event of trouble with Mexico." He wrote his friend Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge: "Will you telegraph me at once if war becomes inevitable?" In 1889, while agitating for military "preparedness," he wrote British diplomat Cecil Spring-Rice: "Frankly, I don't know if I should be sorry to see a bit of a spar with Germany; the burning of New York and a few other seacoast cities would be a good object lesson on the need of an adequate system of coastal defenses." Roosevelt loved hyperbole, but he was apparently serious. He wrote Spring-Rice, "While we would have to take some awful blows at first, I think in the end we would worry the Kaiser a little." A few years later, in 1894, he wrote a family friend, Bob Ferguson, that he longed for "a general national buccaneering expedition to drive the Spanish out of Cuba, the English out of Canada."
在新书《战争情人》中,我谈到了罗斯福的故事,以及我们如何参与到美西战争,以此来说明战场的原始驱动力。此举的部分原因是,我试图要了解自己对于伊拉克战争的态度。作为《新闻周刊》(从安全距离)描述战争的记者,起初我是鹰派,随着战争成本的攀升,转而感到遗憾。战争可能以一些混乱的方式达到了一些目标,但显而易见,在911事件和2003年入侵伊拉克期间,太多记者(包括我本人)至少患有温和的战争狂热症。我回顾历史,为这些冲动追根溯源。
In my new book, The War Lovers, I tell this story—of Roosevelt, and of how we became involved in the Spanish-American War—as a way of understanding the ancient pull of the battlefield. I was, in part, trying to understand my own attitude on the Iraq War. As a NEWSWEEK journalist writing about that conflict (from a safe distance), I had initially been hawkish, then regretful as the costs mounted. The war may, in some muddled way, achieve some of its objectives, but it is clear that too many journalists, including me, caught at least a mild dose of war fever between 9/11 and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. I looked to the past to come to terms with those impulses.
目前,我们介入伊拉克和阿富汗、打击伊斯兰极端主义的“持久战”已持续了近10年。对战争的厌倦情绪已然形成。对大多数人来说,战争似乎遥不可及,从某种程度上说,很容易被人忽略。也许不巧的是,近来出现的一连串书籍和影片试图以音像和现实主义手法还原真实的战争体验,最引人注目的是奥斯卡获奖影片《拆弹专家》和塞巴斯蒂安·云格尔(Sebastian Junger )的报告文学《战争》,我们已在以前的文章中摘录过该书的章节。这些令人警醒的故事值得人们理解和牢记。尽管它们可以暂时压抑人类与生俱来的战争欲望,但我相信,战争狂热不会真正消失,这是最基本的男性心理。
Now we're almost a decade into "the Long War," as some call our engagement in Iraq and Afghanistan and the ongoing struggle with Islamic extremism. A kind of war weariness has set in. To most people the fighting seems far off and, in a way, easy to ignore. Not coincidentally, perhaps, a recent spate of books and movies has arrived seeking to make graphic and realistic the true experience of war, most notably the Oscar-winning film The Hurt Locker and War, the Sebastian Junger volume of war reportage we excerpted in the previous article. These are cautionary tales that seek to make us understand and remember. They may for a time dampen the age-old atavistic lust for war, though war fever, I believe, never really goes away. It is too fundamental to the male psyche.
罗斯福是真正的战争爱好者。无论是为了弥补自己深爱的父亲因雇人顶替服役而未能亲身征战的遗憾,还是像他常常写到的,他担心盎格鲁撒克逊“种族”正变得“过于文明”和脆弱,罗斯福想在战争的熔炉中得到磨练。1898年1月他如愿以偿,在古巴与“狂野骑士”一同冲上凯尔特和圣胡安山(罗斯福在给洛奇的信中喊道,“我有没有告诉过你,我亲手杀了一个西班牙人?”)那似乎一度满足了他的战争欲。作为总统,西奥多·罗斯福倾向于“说话温和,手持大棒。” 1917年,这位58岁的美国前总统,尽管体型臃肿、日益衰弱,却主动提出筹建一个师,到法国作战(因为不想让罗斯福成为英雄或烈士,这个请求被伍德罗·威尔逊总统拒绝了)。
Roosevelt was a true war lover. Whether he was trying to compensate for his beloved father, who bought a draft substitute in the Civil War, or because, as he often wrote, he feared that the Anglo-Saxon "race" was becoming "overcivilized" and weak, Roosevelt wanted to test himself in the crucible of battle. He got his wish on July 1, 1898, charging up Kettle and San Juan hills with his Rough Riders in Cuba. ("Did I tell you that I killed a Spaniard with my own hand?" Roosevelt exclaimed in a letter to Lodge.) That seemed to satisfy his war lust, for a time. As president, TR preferred to "talk softly but carry a big stick." Still, in 1917, overweight and increasingly infirm at 58, the former president of the United States volunteered to raise a division to fight in France. (Not wanting to make Roosevelt a hero or a martyr, President Woodrow Wilson declined.)
罗斯福是个极端的例子。但有多少男人、多少个千年以来,一直梦想着以何种方式参加战斗?他们会勇敢、会奋战吗?或者会畏缩、会逃跑吗?对几乎所有人和所有时代,战争都是对男子气概最纯粹的考验。是令人激动的沉醉和令人不幸的诅咒,正如《纽约时报》前战地记者克里斯·赫奇斯(Chris Hedges)写到的,是“赋予我们意义的力量”,是人民和国家的祸根。
Roosevelt was an extreme case. But how many men, over how many millennia, have wanted to know how they would do in combat? Would they be brave and fight? Or would they cringe and run? War has been, for almost all peoples and all times, the purest test of manhood. It is a thrilling addiction and a wretched curse—"a force that gives us meaning," as former New York Times war correspondent Chris Hedges has written—and the ruination of peoples and nations.
男人和(如今越来越多的)女人因各种原因投入战争,有时是出于道义,有时是由于生活所迫。那些第二次世界大战中逝去的勇士,为我们心目中的“正义战争”死得其所。但是,在“正义战争”成为“大战”之前,当时的人们早就知道了。1914年第一次世界大战爆发时,人们欢欣鼓舞,年轻人身披羽毛,额手相庆。英国的校友和队友组成“伙伴军队”,有时会踢着足球冲上德军的阵地。他们都被屠杀了。1916年在索姆河战役中,一天里就是大约2万名英国士兵丧生。
Men and (now increasingly) women fight wars for all sorts of reasons, sometimes out of nobility or at least necessity. We think of the "Good War," World War II, whose warriors are fast dying off now, honored in their passing. But before the Good War was the Great War, as it was known at the time. The outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 was greeted with something like euphoria by the young men who flocked to the colors. British schoolmates and teammates formed "Pals Battalions," and sometimes advanced on German positions while passing a soccer ball. They were slaughtered. At the Battle of the Somme in 1916, roughly 20,000 British soldiers perished in a single day.
“每一场战争都具有讽刺意味,因为每一场战争的结果都要比之前预期的还要糟糕,”保罗·福塞尔(Paul Fussell )在《伟大的战争与现代的记忆》(The Great War and Modern Memory)中写道。“注定要被作为一大糟糕战事的索姆河战役,是自文明开始以来最大的交战。”尽管后来有更大规模和更残酷的战役,战争却已变得更为现代化和更简单;除了士兵之外,平民受到武装攻击的机会也越来越多了。
"Every war is ironic because every war is worse than expected," wrote Paul Fussell in The Great War and Modern Memory. "The Somme affair, destined to be known as the Great F--k Up, was the largest engagement fought since the beginning of civilization." There have been larger and deadlier battles since, though, as war has become at once more modern and more primitive; the armed conflicts increasingly involved civilians, not just soldiers.
不过,不知为什么,我们忘记了这一切。不愿辜负父辈的年轻人与年轻时错过战争的老人一样,都患上了健忘症。19世纪90年代,不只是罗斯福,他的同胞中也有很多人对战争充满了渴望。日后可能成为美国最高法院最伟大法官的小奥利弗·温德尔·霍姆斯(Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.),穿上自己的内战制服,向年轻的哈佛学生演讲,称战争是“神圣”的,不该被忘却。在内战中当过兵、目睹过尸骨如山的美国总统威廉·麦金莱竭力反对仓促发动战争,但是,他被罗斯福和威廉·伦道夫·赫斯特(William Randolph Hearst)等鹰派人士抛在一边。报纸出版商威廉·伦道夫·赫斯特更是夸张地声称,是他本人运用煽情主意,引发了西班牙与美国之间的战争。
And yet, somehow, we forget. A collective amnesia afflicts young men who wish to live up to their fathers, and old men who missed war as young men. In the 1890s, not just Roosevelt but a good slice of his countrymen were possessed by a hunger for war. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., later perhaps the greatest of U.S. Supreme Court justices, put on his Civil War uniform and lectured young Harvard students that war was "divine," not to be missed. The U.S. president, William McKinley, who had seen the dead stacked up at Antietam as a Civil War soldier, tried to resist the rush to battle. But he was swept aside by hawks like Roosevelt and William Randolph Hearst, the newspaper publisher who would claim, with some exaggeration, that he personally caused the Spanish-American War with his sensationalist crusading.
“美西战争是一场辉煌的小战争,”1898年8月美国国务卿约翰·海伊(John Hay)到了英国后给罗斯福写信称。美国人已经把西班牙人从古巴赶了出去。但另一方面,在世界的另一端,一场没有料到的战斗正在菲律宾开打。美国海军在马尼拉湾击败了一支西班牙舰队,目前美国人无意占领菲律宾,总统麦金莱说他在地图上几乎找不到菲律宾这个国家。美西在菲律宾的战争耗时4年多,付出了4千人的生命,大致同我们在伊拉克阵亡的人数相当。双方都忘记了自己镇压菲律宾人反抗的暴行,这也是美国人首次在刑讯逼供中使用水牢的方法。
"It was a splendid little war," John Hay, the U.S. ambassador to Britain, wrote Roosevelt in August 1898. The Americans had driven the Spanish from Cuba. But another, unexpected conflict was just starting in the Philippines, halfway around the world. The U.S. Navy had defeated a Spanish fleet at Manila Bay, and now the Americans were unintentional occupiers of a country that President McKinley said he could barely find on a map. The fighting in the Philippines dragged on for four more years and cost 4,000 men, roughly the same number we have lost so far in Iraq. There were atrocities on both sides in the long-forgotten counterinsurgency against the Filipinos, and for the first time Americans used an interrogation method called waterboarding.
我(尤其是我这一代人)对战争的评价,源自战争中熟悉而令人不安的历史教训、回忆或忘却。1973年我从大学毕业时,已来不及参加越南战争,不管怎么说,在当时的全国征兵过程中,类似情况不在少数。像大多数同龄人一样,我反对战争,对错过战争而高兴。然而,随着时间的推移,看到像我这样的人大多免于参战,而教育程度较低、较为贫穷的年轻人被征召、被杀害,我越来越感到不安。(在哈佛纪念教堂,人们可以看到第二次世界大战中阵亡的234名学生和教职工的名单,而丧生的美国人共有405,399人。在越南有22名哈佛人阵亡,而美国共有59000人死于这场战争。)
My own appreciation of war, while particular to my generation, is an uncomfortably familiar history lesson in war and remembrance—or forgetting. I graduated from college in 1973, too late for Vietnam and in any case shielded by a high number in the national draft lottery. I was, like almost all my peers, opposed to the war and glad to miss it. Yet as time went on I felt increasingly uneasy about the realization that my type had been able largely to avoid the war, while less well-educated and poorer young men were drafted and killed. (In Memorial Church at Harvard, one can read the names of 234 students and faculty who died fighting in World War II, which cost 405,399 American lives, and 22 who perished in Vietnam, where 59,000 Americans died.)
似乎在很长一段时间,我们想忘掉越南,对其成本和徒劳无功绝口不提。但在看了1994年的影片《阿甘正传》(Forrest Gump ),我有了新的认识。阿甘看似不可能地成了英雄,戴着军装上的战斗勋章,丝毫没有意识到自己正站在华盛顿广场上的和平集会上。而衣冠不整的反战示威人群成了反面角色(阿甘得到了那个女孩)。对我来说,显而易见,国家的情绪正在发生变化;好莱坞当然可以感觉到。越战已经过去了,我们正为下一场战争做着准备。
For a long time, it seemed, we wanted to forget about Vietnam, to turn away from its cost and futility. But watching the movie Forrest Gump in 1994, I had a flash of recognition. The unlikely hero was Gump, unself-conscious in his Army dress uniform with combat medals at a peace rally on the Washington Mall. The villains were the scruffy antiwar protesters (Gump got the girl). It was apparent to me that the national mood was changing; Hollywood certainly could sense it. We were over Vietnam—and ready for the next war.
奇怪的是,1991年的海湾战争中没有足够的血腥值得夸耀,仅仅不到100小时,以不到300名美国人(其中一半人死于非战斗意外)的代价结束战争。它很快被忽略了。随着20世纪90年代的流逝,人们感觉到无法完成消灭萨达姆·侯赛因的任务,我之所以知道这一点,因为我也有同感。但自911之后,旷日持久的伊拉克和阿富汗战争,使我们对战争的忍耐达到极限。我们体会到了电影和回忆录所展示的战争的黑暗面。战争不应该是神话,但它应该被记住。 “幸好战争是如此可怕,”将军罗伯特·李(Gen. Robert E. Lee )曾经说过,“否则我们将乐此不疲。”
The Gulf War of 1991 was, curiously, not sufficiently bloody to be glorious—fought and won in less than 100 hours at the cost of fewer than 300 Americans (half of those the result of noncombat accidents). It was quickly overlooked. As the 1990s went on, there was a feeling that we hadn't finished the job of getting rid of Saddam Hussein—I know I felt it. But since 9/11, with the prolonged wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, we've now had our fill of fighting. We're back to the phase where movies and memoirs capture war's darker side. War should not be mythologized, but it should be remembered. "It is well that war is so terrible," Gen. Robert E. Lee once observed, "lest we grow too fond of it."
标签:男人 战争
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2010-05-13 23:02 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • Guest 说:

    为什么编辑就不肯花一点时间把文章弄成一段英文,一段中文呢?
    这样的话我等初学者也能看的更明白一些、

    2010-05-15 19:16 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
  • Guest 说:

    楼上你错了,在文章的标题下有选择框:英中对照。。。功能超级强大,要多学习。

    2010-05-21 14:53 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 板凳
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