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1/3的乳腺癌是可以避免的

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(3月25日)召开的一次乳腺癌会议上,研究者说在西方国家,如果女性少吃一点,同时多进行一些运动,那么高达1/3的乳腺癌病例可能能够避免。这一观点可能会在乳腺癌受害者与其拥护者之间引发激烈的争论。
Up to a third of breast cancer cases in Western countries could be avoided if women ate less and exercised more, researchers at a breast cancer conference said Thursday — comments that could ignite heated discussions among victims and advocates.
虽然更先进的治疗方法、及早诊断以及乳房X光筛查等医学手段已经显著地减缓了这种疾病,专家称对乳腺癌关注的焦点现在应当转移到改变生活方式上,比如饮食和身体运动。“医学筛查手段能够达到的目标,已经都达到了。我们没法做到更多,”意大利米兰大学(University of Milan)流行病学系主任卡洛·拉维基亚(Carlo La Vecchia)告诉美联社。“是时候从医疗手段转移到其他方法上了。”
While better treatments, early diagnosis and mammogram screenings have dramatically slowed the disease, experts said the focus should now shift to changing behaviors like diet and physical activity. "What can be achieved with screening has been achieved. We can't do much more," Carlo La Vecchia, head of epidemiology at the University of Milan, told The Associated Press. "It's time to move onto other things."
周四在巴塞罗那召开的一次欧洲乳腺癌会议上,拉维基亚详细阐述了生活方式这一因素对乳腺癌的影响。
La Vecchia spoke Thursday on the influence of lifestyle factors at a European breast cancer conference in Barcelona.
乳腺癌是女性中最常见的癌症。根据最新数据,2008年欧洲新增42.1万乳腺癌患者,同时有接近9万患者死亡。美国2009年新增病例超过19万,同时4万患者死亡。女性一生中患乳腺癌的几率大概是八分之一。
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. In Europe, there were about 421,000 new cases and nearly 90,000 deaths in 2008, the latest available figures. The United States last year saw more than 190,000 new cases and 40,000 deaths. A woman's lifetime chance of getting breast cancer is about one in eight.
很多乳腺癌是被雌激素(estrogen)催生的,雌激素是一种产生脂肪组织的荷尔蒙。所以专家认为女性过胖,她可能是分泌了过多雌激素,雌激素能够反过来激发乳腺癌。即使是身体苗条的女性,运动能够帮助她们将身体脂肪更多地转化成肌肉,从而降低患乳腺癌的风险。
Many breast cancers are fueled by estrogen, a hormone produced in fat tissue. So experts suspect that the fatter a woman is, the more estrogen she's likely to produce, which could in turn spark breast cancer. Even in slim women, exercise can help reduce the cancer risk by converting more of the body's fat into muscle.
关于体重和乳腺癌之间关系的任何讨论都是一个政治敏感(政治不正确)的话题,因为一些人可能会误解为,是医疗机构在责备乳腺癌受害者患上乳腺癌(即乳腺癌是女性自己引起的)。受害者她们自己可能也会感觉内疚,想知道体重究竟在多大程度上导致了乳腺癌。
Any discussion of weight and breast cancer is a politically sensitive topic, for some may misconstrue that as the medical establishment blaming victims for getting breast cancer. Victims themselves could also feel guilty, wondering just how much a factor weight played in their getting the disease.
伊恩·曼利(Ian Manley),一家英国慈善团体“乳腺癌护理”(Breast Cancer Care)的代言人,说他的机构一直对提出类似的生活方式上的建议保持很谨慎的态度。“我们永远不想让女性感觉她们自己对她们的乳腺癌负有责任,”他说。“乳腺癌是一种复杂的疾病,有如此多的引发因素,而仅仅只是责备体重这一个因素是很难理解的。”
Ian Manley, a spokesman for Breast Cancer Care, a British charity, said his agency has always been very careful about issuing similar lifestyle advice. "We would never want women to feel responsible for their breast cancer," he said. "It's a complex disease and there are so many factors responsible that it's difficult to blame it on one specific issue."
拉维基亚援引了国际癌症研究机构(International Agencyfor Research on Cancer;简称IARC)的相关数据,数据估计如果女性身体更瘦,同时运动更多的话,25%到30%的乳腺癌可能能够避免。
La Vecchia cited figures from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which estimated that 25 to 30 percent of breast cancer cases could be avoided if women were thinner and exercised more.
这意味着预防乳腺癌,首先要保持身体苗条以及永不超重。国际癌症研究机构的癌症专家罗伯特·贝恩(Robert Baan)说,减肥的女性是否患乳腺癌的几率更低,或者是否当她们体重过重时威胁已经存在,目前都还不太清楚。
That means staying slim and never becoming overweight in the first place. Robert Baan, an IARC cancer expert, said it wasn't clear if women who lose weight have a lower cancer risk or if the damage was already done from when they were heavy.
少喝酒可能也有帮助。专家估计,一天喝超过两杯的酒会使女性患乳腺癌的几率提高4%到10%。
Drinking less alcohol could also help. Experts estimate that having more than a couple of drinks a day can boost a woman's risk of getting breast cancer by four to 10 percent.
在几年前曾有将激素替代疗法(译注:对更年期和绝经期妇女补充雌激素的一种疗法)应用到乳腺癌上的研究,不过后来成千上万的女性抛弃了这种疗法,这才导致了乳腺癌发病率的大幅下降。专家说,如果女性饮食更合理——摄入更少的脂肪,吃更多的蔬菜——同时进行更多运动的话,类似的发病率上的下降也会出现。
After studies several years ago linked hormone replacement therapy to cancer, millions of women abandoned the treatment, leading to a sharp drop in breast cancer rates. Experts said a similar reduction might be seen if women ate better — consuming less fat and more vegetables — and exercised more.
哈佛大学(Harvard University)的癌症专家米歇尔·福尔摩斯(Michelle Holmes)说,改变生活方式,比如饮食和营养结构,可以认为比控制其他引发乳腺癌的因素更为简单。 “女性早孕能够防止女性患上乳腺癌,但是少女怀孕是一种严重的社会问题,所以我们并不鼓励这种行为,”她在接受电话采访时说。“而减肥和增加身体运动则不会有这样的负面影响。”
Michelle Holmes, a cancer expert at Harvard University, said changing things like diet and nutrition is arguably easier than tackling other breast cancer risk factors. "Women who have early pregnancies are protected against breast cancer, but teenage pregnancy is a social disaster so it's not something we want to encourage," she said in a phone interview from Cambridge, Massachusetts. "But there's no downside to reducing obesity and increasing physical activity."
她还说,人们可能错误地认为她们之所以患乳腺癌,更多地是由于她们的基因决定的,而不是她们的生活方式。“基因已经存在几千年了,但是如果乳腺癌发病率在人的一生之内发生变化的话(一般情况下,最多不过100年),那么这就跟基因扯不上什么关系了,”她说。
She also said people may mistakenly think their chances of getting cancer are more dependent on their genes than their lifestyle. "The genes have been there for thousands of years, but if cancer rates are changing in a lifetime, that doesn't have much to do with genes," she said.
在1980和1990年代,乳腺癌发病率稳定地上升,与此同时,肥胖率和激素替代疗法的应用也在增加,激素替代疗法中有涉及到雌激素。
In the 1980s and 1990s, breast cancer rates steadily increased, in parallel with the rise in obesity and the use of hormone replacement therapy, which involves estrogen.
拉维基亚说,像意大利和法国这些国家——在过去20年里肥胖率一直保持稳定——表明体重在人口基数中能够控制在一定水平内。“减肥很困难,但是却不是不可能,”他说。“能够预防乳腺癌的潜在好处,还是值得去减肥的。”
La Vecchia said countries like Italy and France — where obesity rates have been stable for the past two decades — show that weight can be controlled at a population level. "It's hard to lose weight, but it's not impossible," he said. "The potential benefit of preventing cancer is worth it."
标签:乳腺癌
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2010-04-01 19:29 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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