在线词典,在线翻译

小睡的益处

所属:生活杂谈 作者:webmaster 阅读:2227 次 评论:6 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

很多人在中午感到一个情绪和警觉度的低潮,尤其是昨晚有个糟糕的睡眠。许多人认为这种低迷时由于中午吃得太多引起的。然而,实际上发生这种情况是因为我们确实需要一个午间的小睡。
Many people feel a mid-afternoon slump in mood and alertness, especially after a poor night of sleep. Many believe that this slump is caused by eating a heavy lunch. However, in reality, this occurs because we were meant to have a mid-afternoon nap.
包括幼儿以及老人在下午小睡的普遍趋势以及午觉的文化,许多证据都让睡眠的研究者们得出了一个相同的结论:大自然想让我们睡个午觉。这种为了使我们在午间入睡的生理准备类似于身体温度的稍微下降,它的发生与我们是否吃了午饭没有关系。即使在有着充分睡眠的人身上这种生理准备也会出现。睡眠研究者们还发现我们糟糕的工作状况以及伴随着发生的由睡眠引起的事故与下午情绪以及警觉度的下降有关,特别是在一夜没睡的情况下。事实上,从睡眠相关事故上来推测,下午是继午夜之后的第二个死亡高峰期。
Several lines of evidence, including the universal tendency of toddlers and the elderly to nap in the afternoon and the afternoon nap of siesta cultures, have led sleep researchers to the same conclusion: nature intended that we take a nap in the middle of the day. This biological readiness to fall asleep in the mid-afternoon coincides with a slight drop in body temperature and occurs regardless of whether we eat lunch. It is present even in good sleepers who are well rested. Sleep researchers have also discovered that the afternoon dip in mood and alertness is associated with poorer performance, particularly after a night of sleep loss, and a simultaneous increase in sleepiness-related accidents. In fact, deaths from all causes show a secondary peak in the afternoon after a nocturnal peak, presumably from sleepiness-related accidents
午睡生理倾向的证据还包括:中午睡意的增加;午睡的习惯一直持续到儿童时期才被放弃;老年人又重新开始午睡;还有就是成人的小睡几乎都是发生在下午。
Other evidence for a biological propensity for a mid-afternoon nap includes: sleepiness increases in the mid-afternoon; the afternoon nap is the last to be given up by children; older adults revert to afternoon naps; and, adult naps are almost always taken in the afternoon;
对于许多文明来说午觉是日常生活不可缺少的组成部分,特别是越加靠近赤道的文明。一种观点认为小睡可能是我们为了避开正午炎热太阳的一种进化机理的一部分。然而,因为对于午睡的需求弱于我们对于夜间睡眠的需求,它可能会被抑制(或因咖啡因导致),但是代价就是睡意的增长以及情绪和工作状况变糟。同样,在工业化的社会,因为小睡与工作计划相冲突,它将会愈发变得不常见(除了学生和老年人,那些有着更多机会进行有规律小睡的人)。不幸的是,这种小睡的减少可能会引起在午后警觉度和工作状况的下降。
A mid-day nap is an integral part of the daily routine of many cultures, particularly those near the equator. This suggests that napping may have been part of an evolutionary mechanism to get us out of the hot midday sun. However, because the urge for a nap is appreciably weaker than the need to sleep at night, it can be suppressed (or masked by caffeine) but at the cost of increased sleepiness and reduced mood and performance. Also, because naps conflict with work schedules, they are becoming less common in industrialized societies (with the exception of college students and the elderly, who have more regular opportunities to nap). Unfortunately, this decline in napping may be causing poorer afternoon alertness and performance.
对于小睡的研究表明,一个简单的10分钟的午觉便能够提高警觉度,情绪以及心理表现,特别是在夜里没睡好的情况下。许多研究也表明,多相睡眠,即每次30分钟(每4个小时)有规律的小睡是唯一能够将夜间睡眠减少至5-6个小时以下并依旧保持身体性能的方式。在个人帆船选手的研究上表明,在一天的24个小时里,采用这种多相睡眠的话,胜利者平均是大约每5个小时一次小睡。在一项研究中,被试者在持续64个小时的工作期间被允许每6个小时小睡20分钟。结果表明这样仍然维持着基本的认知功能。
Research on napping suggests that an afternoon nap as short as ten minutes can enhance alertness, mood, and mental performance, especially after a night of poor sleep. Several studies also suggest that polyphasic sleep in the form of 30 minute naps taken regularly (every 4 hours) is the only way to reduce nocturnal sleep below 5-6 hours and still maintain performance. Studies on solo yacht racers indicate that winner's average about five hours of sleep in the form of brief naps throughout the 24 hour day. In one study, subjects were allowed 20 minutes of rest/nap every 6 hours during a 64 hour work period. Results suggested that baseline levels of cognitive functions were maintained.
如果你有机会睡午觉,别错过,特别是在一个糟糕的晚间休息后。然后你会觉得更加的灵敏和有能量。在午睡之后,因为睡眠惯性,工作状况可能会有所下降。然而,一旦睡眠惯性消失(通常5-20分钟),心智,能量和主观的警觉度会比之前有所提高。对于被睡眠剥夺的个人,客观上的警觉度和工作状态同样会得到提高。对于没有睡眠剥夺的个人来说,在1.5到2个小时的小睡后,工作状况的提高同样是被证明了的,特别是为了整夜的工作而规划的小睡。小睡应该被限制在45分钟内以及避免在下午4点后小睡,否则,你可能会进入深度睡眠,这会导致你在小睡后一段时间的睡眠惯性以及对于晚上睡意的减少。
If you have an opportunity for an afternoon nap, particularly after a poor night of sleep, take one; you will feel more alert and energetic afterwards. Following a mid-afternoon nap, performance may temporarily deteriorate due to grogginess. However, once sleep inertia dissipates (usually 5-20 minutes), mood, energy, and subjective alertness improve beyond baseline; in sleep-deprived individuals, objective alertness and performance also improve. In non-sleep deprived individuals, improvements in performance have also been documented when measured 1.5 to 12 hours after a nap, particularly when naps are scheduled in preparation for all-night work shift. Naps should be limited to 45 minutes and avoided after 4:00 p.m.;otherwise, one may enter deep sleep, which may cause grogginess for a period of time after the nap and reduce the pressure for sleep that night.
有趣的是,没有证据表明小睡的益处是与一个特殊的睡眠阶段相关联。同样,也没有证据说明在中午简单的休息能够改善情绪。在改善情绪的午觉的积极影响上睡眠自身可能并没有关键的因素。重要的是在午后的一段放松时间上,休息和小睡有什么共同点。
Interestingly, there is no evidence that nap benefits are tied to a specific sleep stage. Also, there is evidence that simply resting in the mid-afternoon can improve mood. Sleep itself may not be the crucial factor in the positive effects of afternoon naps on improving mood; what may be important is an afternoon period of relaxation common to both resting and napping.
总的来说,从减少睡意和提高工作状态上来说,小睡是正常并且有益处的。至少双相睡眠和可能的多相睡眠看来好像提供了人类最佳的工作状态。
In summary, napping is normal and beneficial in terms of reducing sleepiness and increasing performance. Optimum human performance appears best served by at least biphasic sleep and perhaps polyphasic sleep.
标签:益处 小睡
9
2010-03-28 19:30 编辑:kuaileyingyu
分享到:
关注海词微博:
上一篇:走出定势思维
下一篇:饥饿的小鱼2
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有6条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
最新评论:
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章