在线词典,在线翻译

为什么要买单反数码相机?

所属:成长励志 作者:webmaster 阅读:8476 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

当你已经决定投资一步新的数码相机,并且下决心弄上一台单反时,纷繁复杂的型号、眼花缭乱的术语,是否让你困惑万分?不用担心,不管你是一位久经考验的大牛,抑或初涉色坛的菜鸟,看完本文,你将会选择一部最适合的数码单反。
So you've decided to invest in a new digital camera and have made your mind up that you want to step up to a digital SLR, but the huge range of models on offer and endless flow of technical jargon have left you more confused than when you started? Fear not, this page will take the pain out of choosing the perfect digital SLR for you, whether you're a seasoned shooter or a total novice.
当我们深入谈论此主题前,有必要停下来思考一下,为什么当那些紧凑的消费机变得越来越轻便、越来越便宜时,我们还要去搞一块儿砖头折磨自己?答案很简单:单反给我们提供了更多的选择以及更好的图像质量。
Before we get down to business it's worth stopping for a moment to ask the question: why would anyone want a digital SLR when compact digital cameras are so much smaller, lighter and more affordable? The answer can be summed up in two words: versatility and image quality.
选择的多样不仅体现在你可以更换不同的镜头、砸上一堆吓人的配件,各种闪光灯、遥控快门,或者是那些更加牛逼能让你拍下璀璨星空的高级设备。更重要的是,单反深入、进阶的操作控制和更高质量部件的选择会赋予你更多的创造力。
The versatility isn't just the fact you can change lenses and add a wide range of accessories - from basics such as flashguns and remote controls to the more specialized equipment that allow SLRs to capture anything from the tiniest bug to the most distant stars. It's also about the creative versatility offered by the more advanced controls and higher quality components.
并且,这将会关系到第二个因素:图像质量。 通常条件下,差不多的消费机和数码单反拍出来的图像质量看不出来太大的差别;我们不需要煞费苦心,就能获得满意的锐度和色彩。但当你打算跳出这种常规的日常拍摄——在较为昏暗的条件下去捕捉快速运动的体育画面或野生动物、在人像摄影上运用浅景深,单反凭借更大的感光元件和更精准的表现将会让拍摄大不一样。单反的确不够便捷,价格也未必亲善,但对于严肃摄影师来说,单反依然值得拥有。随着数码单反价格的不断走低,我们惊喜的发现,身边越来越多的人都开始拥有属于自己的单反。
And this leads on to the second factor; image quality. In broad daylight the quality difference between a good compact and a digital SLR is minimal; both will produce sharp, colorful results with little effort. But when you start to push the boundaries a bit more; shooting in low light, attempting to capture fast moving sports action or wildlife, or when you want to experiment with shallow depth of field (to add a soft background to a portrait for example), the advantage of a digital SLR's larger sensor and higher sensitivity start to make a big difference. A digital SLR can't beat a compact camera for 'pop it in the purse or pocket' convenience but for serious photography the SLR wins hands down. With prices lower than ever it's not that surprising to discover that many people own one of each.
你需要什么?
What do you need?With so many digital SLRs on the market at so many different price points it's a good idea to narrow down your options by thinking about what 's important to you, and what you want to do with the camera. Do you want the same kind of 'point and shoot' simplicity as you get with a compact camera or are you the type of photographer who likes to roll up his or her sleeves and take control of every function? Many entry-level DSLRs offer a range of 'point and shoot' subject / scene modes, whereas more 'professional' models don't (though all have a basic 'auto' program mode). Do you shoot a lot of sport or wildlife? If so you'll need a fast camera with a high frame rate, and will probably want one of the smaller sensor formats.
面对目前市场上形形色色、价格各异的相机,你的确有必要缩小你的选择范围,因此,你必须考虑什么对你最重要,以及你将用它来拍什么。你是想和当初小相机一样拿着就拍呢,还是想挽起双袖,煞有介事的摆弄一番呢?许多入门单反提供了广泛的便捷拍摄模式,但更专业的型号就未必了(尽管它也会提供自动档)。你是否会更多地从事体育或野生动物的拍摄呢?如果是这样的话,你就得有台具备高速连拍能力的相机,而且很可能需要更小规格的感光元件。
If you shoot in very low light you'll be looking for a camera with the best possible high ISO performance and possibly in-body image stabilization, if you do a lot of studio, portrait or macro work you may well decide that a 'live view' function is a high priority.
如果你需要在非常暗的环境下拍摄,那么你选择的相机必须具有良好的高ISO表现,并且光学防抖也必不可少;如果你棚拍较多,专攻肖像或者微距的话,提供实时取景功能的相机则会让你获益匪浅。
Finally there are practical considerations; do you need a particularly rugged (or weatherproof) body? Does the size and weight of the camera play an important role in your choice? Do you have a particular application in mind that requires a specialist lens or other accessory? Not all camera systems offer the same range of lenses and not all cameras are compatible with the more specialized add-ons. And don't forget that most DSLRs are compatible with many of the lenses and accessories originally designed for film SLR cameras (from the same manufacturer), so if you're already heavily invested in a film system you may want to stick to the same system when you move to digital.
说到底就是一条,一切从实际需要出发:你需要一个异常扛使(能够适用各种恶劣环境)的机身么?尺寸和重量是不是你关心的重点?在你脑海中,是否有需要特殊镜头和设备的特殊用途?并不是所有的相机系统都能提供同样的镜头群,同样,特定的配件只能提供给特定的相机。
Armed with some answers to these questions you can use the information on the rest of this page to produce a shortlist of cameras that match your needs perfectly.
带着这些疑问,你能够更好的从接下来的内容中更好的去寻找答案,得到满意的结果
Sensor size
感光元件尺寸
Let's look first at the physical size of CCD or CMOS sensor used to capture your photographs. Although there are slight variations, virtually all DSLR sensors fit into one of three size categories (starting with the largest); Full Frame, APS-C and Four-Thirds. Sensor size isn't as important as some people would have you think, but there are some key differences. The first is what is known as the 'crop factor'. As the diagram below shows, as the sensor gets smaller it captures a smaller area of the scene, resulting in a photograph that looks like it was taken at a longer focal length (1.5x or 1.6x longer for APS-C, 2x for Four-Thirds).
首先我们来看看CCD或是CMOS的物理尺寸吧。尽管不同厂家的产品会有细微差别,但市面上几乎所有的单反感光元件都可以分为三种规格:全画幅、APS-C画幅和4/3画幅。感光元件虽然并非一些人所想的那么重要,但是它却有几个关键的不同。第一点就是被一些专业人士所熟知的“裁切系数”(crop factor,也称镜头焦距转换率)。如下方的图片所示, 小规格的感光元件成像区域会更小,使用35mm规格镜头时,会导致镜头焦距“缩水”,焦距会变得更长,对于APS-C画幅来说,需要在镜头焦距的基础上乘以1.5或1.6方能获得实际焦段,对于4:3制式的用户,则要乘以2。
The crop factor isn't a major issue for most users, but it does have important consequences for some. If you're buying a digital SLR to replace a film model because you've got a kit bag full of lenses you need to be aware that unless you buy a full frame model all your lenses will produce very different results on your new camera.
对于大多数用户来说,裁剪系数并不是主要涉及的重点,但它会给一些特定用户带来一定的影响。如果你曾经是个胶片机发烧友,那么你就必须得考虑到这一点。因为对于你来说,除非你购买全画幅相机,否则你的所有原有镜头焦段在拍摄时都会受到影响。
For telephoto shooters the result is quite a bonus, as all your lenses will effectively get even more powerful. On the other hand the crop factor means your wideangle lenses will no longer offer anything like a 'wide' field of view. Fortunately there is a wide range of specially designed 'digital only' lenses for smaller sensor DSLRs.
对于摄远爱好者则来说,这种影响会带来更好的效果,你所拍摄的画面将会有更强的冲击力,而另一方面,镜头焦距转换率却意味着过去的广角镜头所拍摄的画面却比原来有不少“缩水”。幸运的是,现在市面上为较小画幅单反设计的数码镜头也越来越多,越来越普遍。
The three most common sensor sizes compared: full frame, APS-C and Four-thirds. Smaller sensors 'crop' the scene and make a lens appear to have a longer focal length. For sports and wildlife shooters the smaller sensor has the effect of making their telephoto lenses and zooms even more powerful.
三种最常见的感官元件尺寸:全画幅、APS-C型以及4/3尺寸。 更小感光元件会使得镜头产生更长焦距的效果。 对于体育和野生动物摄影师来说,小一些的感光元件让他们的摄远作品更具冲击力。
So which is right for you? Each has its own benefits and each has its limitations, and if you're building a DSLR system from scratch you needn't get too hung up on which is right for you.
那么,那种更适合你呢?每一种都有自己的优势,也有各自的短板,如果你是刚刚入门的菜鸟,那么这几个不同的画幅对你来说,就没有太多关心的必要了。
The largest (and most expensive) DLSR format is full frame (so called because the sensor is the same size as a frame of 35mm film). DSLRs with full frame sensors have the biggest, brightest viewfinders and because there's no crop factor are often chosen by photographers who are upgrading from a film SLR and already own expensive wideangle lenses. The larger sensor also means that - all other things being equal - full frame cameras will produce the best results in very low light and at higher sensitivities. On the downside, full frame cameras are big and expensive, and there is only a handful of models to choose from. You also lose the focal length 'boost' offered by smaller sensor cameras when shooting with telephotos.
最大(通常也是最贵)的当属全画幅。之所以称其为全画幅,是因为感光元件和35mm胶片尺寸大小相似。它具有更大、更为明亮的取景器,对于从胶片单反升级而来,已经拥有昂贵广角镜头的用户来说,也不需要考虑镜头焦距转换率。更大的感光元件通常也意味着更好的表现质量——全画幅在低照度、高感光度时会有更好的表现。缺点是高昂的价格(以佳能尼康等成熟的机型为例,行货机身价格通常在20000人民币以上),选择余地其实并不多。同时在摄远时长焦镜头给更小画幅相机带来的冲击力也会随之消失。
APS-C is by far the most common format, used in virtually all Canon, Nikon, Pentax and Sony DLSR models. With a crop factor of 1.5x or 1.6x you need special digital lenses to get true wideangle results, but these are readily available and are usually less expensive than their 'full frame' counterparts. The 'kit lens' supplied with most APS-C cameras is a good starting point, offering a versatile zoom range from wideangle to short telephoto
APS-C则是使用较为普遍的制式,在佳能、尼康、宾得以及索尼等单反上均有采用。只有配用1.5x或1.6x镜头焦距转换率的镜头,方能获得正常的广角效果,不过也不必担心什么,这些镜头已经随处可见,并且比起全画幅的要便宜不少。多数APS-C画幅的相机所配标头都能给你带来不错的初次使用体验,从广角到一定程度的长焦,能给你带来不少发挥的余地。
The difference in size and weight between a full frame professional level camera (Nikon D3, left) and a compact entry-level DSLR (Nikon D60, right) is considerable. The Four Thirds system promises slightly more compact camera bodies and lenses. Four thirds is also the only DSLR system that uses the slightly squarer '4:3' format (as used on virtually all compact digital cameras).
不同尺寸规格对比:全画幅专业级相机(尼康D3,左)和紧凑型入门机(尼康D60) 4/3系统带来了更加紧凑的机身。该系统也是唯一一类使用4:3画幅制式的单反(这种比例多见于普通消费级数码相机)
Four Thirds is a new 'all digital' format developed by Olympus and currently used in Olympus and Panasonic DSLR models. Unlike the other systems on the market Four Thirds is not based on any existing film SLR system and uses a totally new lens mount, so all the lenses in the system are designed for digital, making the crop factor issues mentioned above less relevant. With the smallest sensor size Four Thirds offers slightly more compact camera bodies and lenses. Although the smaller sensor should in theory mean that these cameras produce noisier (grainier) results in low light and at higher sensitivities, for most purposes the difference isn't huge.
4/3系统是由奥林巴斯开发的一种新的“全数字”格式,目前主要是被奥林巴斯和松下所采用。 和其他市面上的系统不同的是,4/3并不是过去胶片单反的衍生,而且还采用了全新的镜头卡口,因此,和佳能尼康抑或宾得等传统光学厂商不同,采用此系统的镜头都是重新设计、完全为数码时代而设计,因此镜头焦距转换率(the crop factor)对于此系统来说影响并不大。凭借着更小的感光元件,4/3系统的相机提供了更为紧凑的机身和镜头。尽管从理论上讲,更小的感光元件会在低照度或者高iso的情况下带来更高的噪点,但就大多数情况而言,和其他单反差别并不大。
Anti shake systems Photos taken in low light or with long telephoto lenses can easily be ruined by blur caused by the camera moving during the exposure (camera shake). Image stabilization (IS) systems are designed to counteract the motion of camera shake and reduce (or eliminate) the resultant blurring. Every manufacturer has a different name for it ('Super SteadyShot', 'Anti Shake', 'Vibration reduction', Mega OIS'), but all use one of two techniques. Optical IS works by moving a small element inside the lens and is totally separate from the camera. Sensor shift IS - as the name implies - moves the sensor itself. Note that the terms 'optical' and 'mechanical' IS are often used interchangeably.
防抖系统
Image stabilization systems reduce the blur caused by camera shake, allowing sharp pictures to be taken even in low light or at long focal lengths.
光线不好、或者使用长焦拍摄,由于需要长时间的曝光,相机的抖动很容易让照片糊掉。防抖系统(IS)应运而生。别看市面上打的商业噱头五花八门:“Super SteadyShot”(索尼系列采用)、“Anti Shake”、“Vibration reduction”(尼康系)、Mega OIS(松下系),其实说到底用的就那两样技术(技术实现上有区别,本质无差别)——光学防抖(镜头)和感光元件防抖(机身防抖)。光学防抖靠的是镜头内部所配备的移动矫正设备,而机身防抖靠的是感光元件上配备的防抖技术。所有类型的镜头防抖和机身防抖,通常可以作为互补。
The net result is the same, though obviously sensor IS is built in to the camera, so offers its benefits to every lens you buy. Lens IS has the advantage of stabilizing the view through the viewfinder as well as reducing blur in the final picture, but if you intend to buy several lenses it can end up being more expensive as stabilized lenses cost more than their non-stabilized equivalents. At the moment Sony, Pentax and Olympus offer in-body sensor stabilization, whereas Canon, Panasonic and Nikon offer stabilized lenses (including standard 'kit' lenses).
图像稳定系统可以降低由相机抖动造成的模糊,使得在较低照度和长焦端的拍摄更加锐利。
Speed
最终结果是一样的。尽管看上去机身防抖好像一次搞定,以后不论你换怎样的镜头,都可以万事大吉。但镜头防抖也不是没有好处,它的优点在于能够通过取景器直观地观察到防抖的效果,但是另一方面,镜头防抖的成本自然不菲, 带有防抖功能的镜头要比一般镜头贵出不少。当下,索尼、宾得以及奥林巴斯都提供机身防抖,而佳能、松下和尼康则偏重镜头防抖技术(包括一些标准镜头)。
If you're used to using a compact digital camera picking up and taking pictures with a digital SLR will be a revelation; even entry-level models focus and shoot faster than any compact. As you move up the range to more expensive models focus speed will increase slightly, but the real difference is continuous shooting frame rate, something of vital importance to sports and wildlife photographers.
速度
Most entry level DSLRs offer a continuous shooting rate of around 2.5 or 3 frames per second; plenty enough for most casual photographers trying to snap the kids or pets running around the back yard. The most basic models limit the number of shots you can take in a single 'burst' (especially if you're shooting in the highest quality RAW mode), but again this isn't likely to trouble the average user.
如果你是从用惯了消费数码升级而来,单反将会是革命性的。即使是入门级单反,对焦和拍摄速度也会超过任何一款普通数码相机。随着单反价格的提升,对焦速度也会逐渐提升,但真正不同的在于连拍速度,而这对于体育和野生动物摄影师来说则是尤为重要的一点。
If you do have real 'need for speed' you'll need to leave the entry-level behind and move into the mid range or semi-professional sector. Here the starting point is 5 frames per second (though if money is no object the Canon EOS 1D Mk II and Nikon D3 can deliver 10 and 11 frames per second respectively), and larger 'buffer' memory means you can take a lot more frames in a single burst. To compare frame rates and other aspects of SLR performance for any model you're interested in check out the reviews here.
多数入门单反提供了每秒2.5-3张的连拍速度;这对于业余爱好者和普通玩家来说绝对够用,捕捉孩子或者家中宠物的那些精彩瞬间不在话下。多数普通单反限制了单次闪光所能拍摄的张数(在采用最高画质的RAW格式出片时尤为明显),但对于普通用户来说,这是没有问题的问题。
Size, weight and durability As mentioned above digital SLRs come in a variety of shapes and sizes from the ultra compact entry-level models to the tank-like professional models. If you're likely to do a lot of shooting in damp, humid or dusty conditions you'll need to look for a DSLR with some kind of weatherproof sealing and a solid magnesium alloy chassis, and possibly one with a built in dust removal system to keep the sensor clean. Obviously this kind of durability doesn't come cheap, though there are plenty of mid-range models that offer some level of protection from the elements.
如果你真是个不羁又烧钱的主儿,那么你可以尝试中端或者半专业的型号。基本上都能做到每秒5张以上(有钱的话,推荐佳能EOS1D Mk II 和 Nikon D3,它们都能达到每秒10-11张的快速), 更大的“缓冲”储存方式也意味着单次闪光可以拍摄更多。如果对于连拍速度和其他一些参数的感兴趣的话,可以点击此处查看进一步的评测。
On the other hand, if you like to travel light and don't feel like lugging two or three pounds (1 to 1.3 Kg) of camera gear round your neck then look for one of the new generation of ultra compact lightweight DSLRs - some of which tip the scales at not much more than 20 oz / 0.5 Kg with a small lens. It doesn't matter how great a camera is if you can't be bothered carrying it around with you because it's too big or too heavy. You can check out camera weights and dimensions using the comparison tools here.
尺寸、重量以及耐用性
Screens and live view One of the defining features of an SLR camera is that you frame the picture by looking through the same lens that takes the picture (by looking through the viewfinder). And many users moving from a compact to a DSLR in the past few years have been surprised to discover that you can't use the color screen on the back of the camera to frame the pictures in the same way you can with a compact. That's all changing as more and more models offer a 'Live View' option that does just that.
正如前面所提到的那样,数码单反小到集成化颇高的入门机,大到箱式专业机,尺寸重量各异,应有尽有。如果你经常需要在阴暗、潮湿或者尘土飞扬的环境下拍摄,你需要考虑防水性能、镁合金机身框架,并且最好拥有感光元件除尘功能。虽然一些中端单反也开始具备这些功能中的部分,但机器扛使的同时也意味着更高的价格。
Live view isn't without its drawbacks; in most cases it slows down the picture taking process in use as the design of an SLR means the mirror inside the body has to be flipped up to enable live view and flipped back down to focus or take a shot. Some models allow auto focus in live view mode (without the mirror flips), but this is often a fairly slow process.
另一方面,你如果只是正常的天气状况下出门,而且不喜欢脖子上栓的太重(1-1.3公斤),那么你可以考虑新一代便携单反——部分只有0.5公斤,并配有更轻便的镜头。如果太不方便,那么无论你的相机有多牛X,那也是白搭。如果你外语不错,可以利用dp提供的这个工具(点击进入)来查看相机的重量和规格。
LCD screens have come on in leaps and bounds in recent years and 2.5 or 3.0 inch LCDs are now common. Some models offer very high resolution screens for an ultra-clear picture, though of course this adds a premium to the price.
屏幕和实时取景功能
That's not to say live view isn't a useful feature; in the studio the ability to magnify a portion of the display to check focus is a real boon, and the fact you don't need to put your eye to the viewfinder can make shooting from very awkward positions (such as low on the ground or with the camera above your head) considerably easier.
单反的一大特点就在于“所见即所得”——取景器内进光和感光元件受光均来自同一路径:镜头。在过去很长的一段日子里,很多从消费级数码相机过度而来的用户会为无法使用单反背后的显示屏取景而感到意外。然而现在这一状况正在发生着改变:越来越多的单反开始提供“实时取景”(Live View)功能。
Some DSLRs even have articulated screens that can be angled to offer a better view when getting behind the camera is difficult. You can check out the live view performance of any DSLR model you are interested using the in-depth reviews reviews here.
实时取景也不是没有它的缺点;多数情况下它都会减缓拍摄过程,因为单反的设计结构使得实时取景的同时,内部的镜片需要不断变换方能实现对焦并或拍摄。一些型号虽然在不改变内部镜片的情况下也可以做到自动对焦,但是通常也是个相对缓慢的过程。
Advanced photography features Although all digital SLRs share a common base feature set as you move up the ranges you'll find more and more advanced features which may or may not be of importance to you. You'll also find that higher level SLRs offer far more customization options, allowing you to fine tune every aspect of the camera's operation. Many of these functions and options will be of interest only to the more advanced photographer.
近年来,LCD 屏幕有了长足进步,2.5或者3.0英寸的屏幕已经司空见惯,解析度也越来越高,显示效果也越来越好,当然,价格嘛,也会随之提高。
System addict...
其实这并不算得上是一个非常有用的功能;相比而言,在工作室里放大画幅以检测是否准确对焦倒是个真正实用的功能,你还不必过于担心那种把眼睛粘在取景器上保持特别拧巴的拍摄姿势。
One last word. Buying an SLR is, for many people, only the first step on what can become a lifelong relationship with a specific camera system, so it's important to look at the 'bigger picture' when making your choice. The camera is only part of the equation when it comes to image quality; the lens has an equally important role to play. Most of the major players have broadly similar lens options (and there's plenty of third-party alternatives for those that don't), but inevitably each has its relative strengths and weaknesses. If you have a specific application that needs specialized lenses (or other accessories) it's worth doing some research before committing to one system or another; dpreview's lens reviews and user forums are an excellent place to start.
一些单反甚至采用了翻转屏的设计,以应对那些很难从机背取景的情况。对于各类型号实时取景的深度评测,可以点击此处。
更多摄影特色
尽管所有的数码单反都有类似的基本功能,但是随着你操作的进一步提升,你会发现更多进阶功能,虽然这些功能未必对你有多么重要。高端相机更多自定义功、更多的相机操作模式,一般也只有高级摄影师或者摄影老手们才会有心思去了解并运用。
哪门哪系...
对于很多人来说,购买一部单反仅仅是与某个相机系统携手相伴的第一步,所以这也是你在做决定入哪个系统的相机前应当慎重考虑的问题。机身仅仅是决定成像质量的一部分,镜头同样重要。很多色坛老鸟都拥有很多镜头作为备选,当然也有不少副厂镜头可以作为备选,但并不存在所谓的万能镜头。如果你机器是一定型号(卡口),那么你就得用专属镜头或者其它附件,各个系统的镜头并不通用。所以选择入哪门哪系,也是非常值进行一番研究的问题;Dpreview的镜头评测和用户论坛 将可以给你提供更多值得参考的信息。
标签:买单
11
2010-03-18 21:54 编辑:kuaileyingyu
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有0条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章