Visionary. This style is most appropriate when an organization needs a new direction. Its goal is to move people towards a new set of shared dreams. "Visionary leaders articulate where a group is going, but not how it will get there - setting people free to innovate, experiment, take calculated risks," writes Goleman.
Coaching. This one-on-one style focuses on developing individuals, showing them how to improve their performance, and helping to connect their goals to the goals of the organization. Coaching works best with employees who show initiative and want more professional development. But it can backfire if it's perceived as "micromanaging" an employee, and undermines his or her self-confidence.
Affiliative. This style emphasizes the importance of team work, and creates harmony in a group by connecting people to each other. It's particular valuable when you need to improve team harmony, increase morale, and repair communication or repair broken trust in an organization. But it has its drawbacks. An excessive emphasis on group praise can allow poor performance to go uncorrected, and lead employees to believe that mediocrity will be tolerated.
Democratic. This style draws on people's knowledge and skills, and creates a group commitment to the resulting goals. It works best when the direction the organization should take is unclear, and the leader needs to tap the collective wisdom of the group. The consensus building approach can be disastrous in times of crisis, however, when urgent events demand quick decisions.
Pacesetting. In this style, the leader sets high standards for performance. He or she is obsessive about doing things better and faster, and asks the same of everyone. But Goleman warns this style should be used sparingly, because it can undercut morale and make people feel as if they are failing. 'Our data shows that, more often than not, pacesetting poisons the climate,' he writes.
Commanding. This is the classic model of "military" style leadership - probably the most often used, but the least often effective. Because it rarely involves praise and frequently employs criticism, it can undercut morale and job satisfaction. Still, in crisis situations, when an urgent turnaround is needed, it can be an effective approach.
2010-03-03 22:32 编辑：kuaileyingyu
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