在线词典,在线翻译

海地之痛,海地之路

所属:社会热点 作者:webmaster 阅读:2028 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

在海地大地震之后的那个夜晚,那些失去家园,以及那些担心房屋随时坍塌的海地人都栖身户外,太子港的大街上和公园里到处都可见他们的身影。太子港的贝松区内,在基纳姆酒店对面那条街上的圣皮埃尔广场上,成百上千的人们在夜幕下歇息,很多人都唱起了圣歌“上帝啊,赐予我生命的万能的主啊。为什么我们要遭受如此的苦难?”位于太子港南部的海滨城市雅克梅勒市,也未能幸免,那里灾害形势也很严峻。那儿的一个妇女曾目睹从一栋废弃的建筑物内挖出她的孩子的尸体,就在她得知她的第二个孩子也离开人世的时候,她哇哇嚎哭了起来,“上帝啊,我已经没有办法再活下去了。”里昂艾尔.盖蒂走进太子港的太平间内去寻找他兄弟约瑟夫的尸体,但是他也没有能够在那成堆的尸体中找到他兄弟的尸体。盖蒂说:“我没有发现他——这就是一场大灾难。上帝赐予我们一切,现在上帝又将他所赐予的都收了回去。”克里斯.罗林,是一个美国传教士也是一个医疗协助人员,他曾经努力去救一个叫杰奎琳的小女孩。杰奎琳当时被压在了学校的废墟中,而罗林所有的工具只是一个小锤子而已。他让那个小女孩要稳定心态并且诚心祈祷。可是随着夜幕降临,他便向小女孩许诺去寻找帮助,然后并马上返回,就离开了她。可是当他第二天上午返回到这里的时候,杰奎琳已经离开了这个世界。“她的身体带给我的折磨持续的时间并不是很长,但是我却觉得在我离开杰奎琳之前我们的那些对话却会永远的烙在我的生命里,”罗林后来在他的博客中写到“我怎么可以弃一个垂死之人于不顾,而且她当时还陷身于瓦砾之中不得脱身!……当我离开她的时候,她是那么的勇敢!我告诉她我去寻求帮助,但是我却没有告诉她我要等到早上才会回到这里来啊。这件事恐怕会困扰我很长的一段时间。”有很多的读者都向罗林表示安慰,说他的故事就是神的智慧和神的慈悲仍然存在于世间的明证。
The night after the earthquake, Haitians who had lost their homes, or who feared that their houses might collapse, slept outdoors, in the streets and parks of Port-au-Prince. In Place Saint-Pierre, across the street from the Kinam Hotel, in the suburb of Pétionville, hundreds of people lay under the sky, and many of them sang hymns: “God, you are the one who gave me life. Why are we suffering?” In Jacmel, a coastal town south of the capital, where the destruction was also great, a woman who had already seen the body of one of her children removed from a building learned that her second child was dead, too, and wailed, “God! I can't take this anymore!” A man named Lionel Gaedi went to the Port-au-Prince morgue in search of his brother, Josef, but was unable to find his body among the piles of corpses that had been left there. “I don't see him—it's a catastrophe,” Gaedi said. “God gives, God takes.” Chris Rolling, an American missionary and aid worker, tried to extricate a girl named Jacqueline from a collapsed school using nothing more than a hammer. He urged her to be calm and pray, and as night fell he promised that he would return with help. When he came back the next morning, Jacqueline was dead. “The bodies stopped bothering me after a while, but I think what I will always carry with me is the conversation I had with Jacqueline before I left her,” Rolling wrote afterward on his blog. “How could I leave someone who was dying, trapped in a building! . . . She seemed so brave when I left! I told her I was going to get help, but I didn't tell her I would be gone until morning. I think this is going to trouble me for a long time.” Dozens of readers wrote to comfort Rolling with the view that his story was evidence of divine wisdom and mercy.
这次的大地震是遵循着某种恶意的安排。地震所发生的地方恰在大都市,而这里的人口却占着海地九百万总人口中的三分之一。将联合国行动小组设在海地的总部夷为平地,并且很多的联合国工作人员也在此殒命,而联合国本来可以在组织救灾时起带头作用的。据报道这次联合国行动的总指挥海迪.安纳比也不免于难。这是个连邮编也没有的小国家,这场地震将这里那些破烂的水泥结构住房完全荡平,医院完全瘫痪,港口也早已完全破败,机场的操控塔也也不能正常工作,从总统府到国家大教堂的主要结构几乎无所保留的全被摧毁,大主教和高级政要也丧命于这场地震,电力供应和电话服务也已经中断,大街上早已不让通行。在首都里,根本看不到那些用以清除那些压在人们身上碎石的重型机械,甚至连挖掘大型坟坑的设备也没有。圭.拉洛奇是一家医院的经理,说道“这里的一切都已乱套。”
The earthquake seemed to follow a malignant design. It struck the metropolitan area where almost a third of Haiti's nine million people live. It flattened the headquarters of the United Nations mission, which would have taken the lead in coördinating relief, and killed dozens of U.N. employees, including, reportedly, the mission chief, Hédi Annabi. In a country without a building code, it wiped out whole neighborhoods of shoddy concrete structures, took down hospitals, wrecked the port, put the airport's control tower out of action, damaged key institutions from the Presidential Palace to the National Cathedral, killed the archbishop and senior politicians, cut off power and phone service, and blocked passage through the streets. There was almost no heavy equipment in the capital that could be used to move debris off trapped survivors, or even to dig mass graves. “Everything is going wrong,” Guy LaRoche, a hospital manager, said.
海地的历史就是一部充满遭遇的纪年史,那些遭遇连接不暇的向这个小岛袭来,同时也不可避免地激起人们关于上帝的争论。黑奴制度、大革命、压迫、肤色等级、外国的疯狂掠夺、美国不时的军事占领和放任自流、极度贫困、政治暴力、军事政变、黑社会集团、台风和洪水,这所有的一切,以及最近发生的大地震,都是由于历史的积怨才导致现在的国家不振,才会使上万的人们失去生命。 “如果上帝真的存在的话,他也是真地在存心对付海地人民”,居住在海底的新闻记者普伽.巴迪亚在《泰晤士报》上写道。海地人自己也这么认为。泽德,是我们公寓的一个保洁工人,也说上帝对世界各地的造孽者很愤怒,尤其是对海地人民。泽德说这场地震让她更加坚定她的信念,她将地震理解为上帝对过去的一切恶行的报复。
Haitian history is a chronicle of suffering so Job-like that it inevitably inspires arguments with God, and about God. Slavery, revolt, oppression, color caste, despoliation, American occupation alternating with American neglect, extreme poverty, political violence, coups, gangs, hurricanes, floods—and now an earthquake that exploits all the weaknesses created by this legacy to kill tens of thousands of people. “If God exists, he's really got it in for Haiti,” Pooja Bhatia, a journalist who lives in Haiti, wrote in the Times. “Haitians think so, too. Zed, a housekeeper in my apartment complex, said God was angry at sinners around the world, but especially in Haiti. Zed said the quake had fortified her faith, and that she understood it as divine retribution.”
这也正是帕特.罗伯森的观点,这个保守的电台传教士也曾亮相《700人俱乐部》这个节目,并且说海地人在200年前就和恶魔签订了一个协议(这绝对是真人真事),海地作为这个地球上最虔诚的宗教国家之一,他仍旧建议海地人民都要信仰上帝。(类似的,他也将9.11事件和卡特里娜台风归因于美国的罪孽。)在罗伯森的神学理念里,即使在面临灾难的时候也必须随时出来为上帝正名——这个世界上的所有痛苦都是自己的行为导致。该遭灾的人总归会捱到那一天的到来。
This was also Pat Robertson's view. The conservative televangelist appeared on “The 700 Club” and blamed Haitians for a pact they supposedly signed with the Devil two hundred years ago (“true story”), advising people in one of the most intensely religious countries on earth to turn to God. (Similarly, he had laid the blame for the September 11th attacks and Hurricane Katrina on Americans' wickedness.) In Robertsonian theodicy—the justification of the ways of God in the face of evil—there's no such thing as undeserved suffering: people struck by disaster always had it coming.
在美国白宫,总统奥巴马也正在思考关于神学激励的议题。他内心也怀有和那些在夜空下唱颂圣歌的海地人一样的问题“在经历如此历时弥久惨绝人寰的遭遇后,再遭遇新的灾难必会致使很多海地人举头问苍天,“我们是不是被上帝抛弃了?”但是奥巴马的答案和罗伯森和泽德的答案完全相反:他并未声称已知晓上帝的意志,相反他发誓说美国不会放弃海地,因为那里的一切都让人们随时都谨记“人类是一家”的信条。
At the White House, President Obama, too, was thinking about divine motivation, and he asked the same question implied in the hymn sung by Haitian survivors under the night sky: “After suffering so much for so long, to face this new horror must cause some to look up and ask, Have we somehow been forsaken?” But Obama's answer was the opposite of Zed's and Robertson's: rather than claiming to know the mind of God, he vowed that America would not forsake Haiti, because its tragedy reminds us of “our common humanity.”
选择人文主义的方式来减轻别人遭遇的痛苦则必将要求人们履行应尽的义务。首先就是人道主义援助:普通美国人所表现出的慷慨解囊,还有美国政府的快速反应,譬如派遣部队、发送供给等,都表明美国人确实担负起了他们肩头的责任,尽管那些也并不能满足海地人民的井喷需求。但是除了救援和赈灾之外,美国和其他国家该如何为海地的长期发展做出应有的贡献,以及如果海地想自救的话必须如何做,则更是一个难题。在地震之前,海迪.安纳比曾宣布,海地的形势已经稳定,其未来已经不是如此阴霾。比尔.克林顿,作为联合国特派海地大使,在投资和经济增长方面也显得更加信心十足,即使在地震之后,他也指出新出台的海地国家经济计划为海地重建奠定了良好的基础。
Choosing the humanistic approach to other people's misery brings certain obligations. The first is humanitarian: the generous response of ordinary Americans, along with the quick dispatch of troops and supplies by the U.S. government, met this responsibility, though it couldn't answer the overwhelming needs of people in Haiti. But beyond rescue and relief lies the harder task of figuring out what the United States and other countries can and ought to do for Haiti over the long term, and what Haiti is capable of doing for itself. Before the earthquake, Hédi Annabi declared that the U.N. had stabilized Haiti to the point where its future was beginning to look a little less bleak. Bill Clinton, the U.N. special envoy to Haiti, has sounded even more optimistic about investment and growth, and after the earthquake he pointed to Haiti's new national economic plan as a sound basis for rebuilding.
然而海地的政治文化仍囿于其久远的岛国狭隘思想,腐败和暴力也极其猖獗,这也解释了为什么太子港会在此次地震中变成一堆废墟。如果地震在彻底摧毁了海地的穷人和富人之后,其政治和经济精英们却仍然是继续以前的自相残杀,谋取私利那一套的话,那他们眼中所发现只是一堆堆的瓦砾而已。此种规模的大灾难也揭示了其所发生之社会的特征。2008年在缅甸发生飓风灾害后,缅甸政府的后续措施不仅表明执政军政府的铁石心肠和置人民于水火而不顾,也说明那里的社会不稳定。海地的地震也展示出:不管海地人民在危急时刻如何体现互帮互助精神,其政府根本无力发挥其应有的效用,政府不能安葬死者,更不用说拯救尚存的人了。这个权力的真空,以前是暂时由联合国填补,现在却是国家动乱的一个重要威胁。
Yet Haitian political culture has a long history of insularity, corruption, and violence, which partly explains why Port-au-Prince lies in ruins. If, after an earthquake that devastated rich and poor neighborhoods alike, Haiti's political and business élites resurrect the old way of fratricidal self-seeking, they will find nothing but debris for spoils. Disasters on this scale reveal something about the character of the societies in which they occur. The aftermath of the 2008 cyclone in Burma not only betrayed the callous indifference of the ruling junta but demonstrated the vibrancy of civil society there. Haiti's earthquake shows that, whatever the communal spirit of its people at the moment of crisis, the government was not functioning, unable even to bury the dead, much less rescue the living. This vacuum, which had been temporarily filled by the U.N., now poses the threat of chaos.
如果海地必须有所改变的话,那么外界各国的立场也应有所改变。现在不是仅仅着眼于管理那些私人机构捐赠的时候,国际机构和各国都应该花更大力气和更多的金钱帮助完成一个更加宏伟的项目,那就是帮助海地政府重建,让其发挥应有职能。这可能会花费数年,耗资说十亿美元。但如果各国都不想担负起那个担子的话,那海地就只好像现在这样。但是对一个即将消亡的国家进行仓促的救助,并且也腆脸称之为援救的话,那海地就真的没有救了,而这次抛弃海地人民的并不是上帝,而是……
But if Haiti is to change, the involvement of outside countries must also change. Rather than administering aid almost entirely through the slow drip of private organizations, international agencies and foreign powers should put their money and their effort into the more ambitious project of building a functional Haitian state. It would be the work of years, and billions of dollars. If this isn't a burden that nations want to take on, so be it. But to patch up a dying country and call it a rescue would leave Haiti forsaken indeed, and not by God.
标签:海地
8
2010-01-24 21:52 编辑:kuaileyingyu
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有0条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章