Standard I: Knowledge of Students
Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English draw on their understanding of child and adolescent development, value their students as individuals, and actively acquire knowledge of their students to foster their students’ skills and interests as individual language learners.
Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English create classrooms in which all students can learn a new language. Teachers make decisions about instructional content and strategies based on their knowledge of the learning styles, backgrounds, experiences, and goals of their individual students, as well as on their own knowledge of language acquisition.
Understanding the Diverse Ways in Which Students Grow and Develop
Accomplished teachers of world languages are keenly aware that young people learn in various ways and at varying paces. They use their knowledge of child and adolescent development in designing and providing appropriate instruction to their students. They recognize and make professional accommodations for variations in students’ age levels; cognitive, physical, and motor development; gender; multiple intelligences; and learning styles. Attitude also plays an important role in student success. Students with low selfesteem or little confidence about their ability to learn another language might benefit from extra encouragement from the teacher. Of course, all students can benefit from positive teacher feedback. Teachers might have students work in groups so that they can also benefit from the help and positive reinforcement of their peers. Students who are motivated and confident might work well independently, using computer software that gives them instant feedback and the ability to pace themselves. Those who teach young children know the importance of working at concrete levels; students might, for example, learn how to play a game native to the culture studied, learn to tell time as they manipulate individual student clocks, or learn children’s songs while using hand and body movements. Older students might practice rdering a meal in a restaurant or learn the procedure for making a telephone call from another country. As students mature, teachers provide more abstract and analytical challenges. For example, older students could plan an excursion on the subway of another country or analyze and discuss viewpoints and perspectives from the target culture on the basis of current events. Teachers are aware that personalizing the language experience is helpful to students because many students will talk readily about themselves and their experiences. Teachers recognize that providing learning experiences in the affective domain (which includes motivation, self-esteem, risk taking, attitudes, and willingness to cooperate with peers) by encouraging open-ended personal expression is a valuable way of enhancing students’ cognitive ability, cultural understanding, and linguistic proficiency. Teachers provide a range of meaningful, interesting, and personally relevant instruction for students at all levels of development or ability. Teachers constantly monitor and adjust to students’ needs, allowing for individual learners'differences while keeping in focus the continuum of language learning. Teachers are also alert to students’ social development as they enter adolescence and their relationships with peers and adults change. Accomplished teachers use their knowledge of these student characteristics as assets to enhance learning, to provide opportunities for more autonomous learning and group nteraction, and to set the highest goals for all students at all development stages.
Understanding the Diverse Backgrounds That Students Bring to the Classroom
Accomplished teachers learn as much as possible about the backgrounds of their students and use this information to shape instructional decisions. Although class size and teaching load affect the depth of knowledge that teachers can acquire about students, accomplished teachers do their best to understand their students as individuals. The relationships that teachers develop with their students not only support student learning and development but also provide teachers with perspectives by which to view aspects of students’ character, values, interests, talents, and goals. Practically everything about the learner is relevant information in language instruction, including the student’s cultural, racial, linguistic, and ethnic heritage; religious affiliation; exceptional learning needs; sexual orientation; family setting; socioeconomic status; prior learning experiences; and personal interests, needs, and goals. Accomplished teachers of world languages are particularly sensitive to such cultural, family, and personal distinctions and promote respect for others by modeling respect for the differences among students. They make respect for others the basis for all interactions in the class.
Knowledge of students also includes familiarity with the curricula of their other academic classes as well as awareness of various aspects of youth culture at home and in areas where the language is studied or spoken; these might include television programs and movies students watch, music they listen to, sports they play, and other activities in which they involve themselves. The accomplished teacher takes this diverse knowledge into account in the daily interactions within the classroom. Teachers thus connect students'experiences with their explorations of world languages, making the classroom activities relevant to students'lives.
Accomplished teachers employ various means of learning about students, their communities, and their social and cultural environments. They listen to and observe students actively and willingly in various settings in which students express themselves, whether in formal classroom discussions, individual conferences, or informal gatherings. They enhance their understanding of students through discussions with family members, other teachers, school counselors, special education teachers, and other educational and administrative staff. They use the information they gather, including their identification of students with exceptional talents, needs, or challenges, to ensure that they meet both the unique and common needs of all students.
Understanding the Diverse Language Experiences That Students Bring to the Classroom
Accomplished teachers are informed about students’ previous language experiences. Teachers recognize that students bring to the classroom a wide variety of language backgrounds, including the experiences of growing up in a monolingual, English-speaking environment; living or traveling abroad; participating in language immersion programs; having a bilingual education; and interacting with family members who regularly speak a language other than English. For some students, the language being studied is their third or fourth language. Knowing the variety of experiences and abilities within a class (and perhaps within the school or district), accomplished teachers reach out to all students to build on their individual background knowledge and maximize their learning. Teachers demonstrate particular sensitivity toward heritage speakers with backgrounds in the language studied. Teachers, for instance, encourage students to share with the entire class their prior learning experiences in the target language. They work to ensure that students build language competence and literacy skills in their heritage language and that the heritage language can form the foundation for successful acquisition of additional languages, which may include English. Teachers recognize that diverse language experiences can serve as a framework for academic success and as a source of enrichment for the entire learning community. Teachers also expand student knowledge of the usefulness of competence in more than one language—using such examples as the role of Navajo speakers in maintaining Allied communications in World War II—and the advantages of having bilingual or multilingual people in civil service; diplomatic and national security positions; and local, national, and international business.
2010-01-21 23:31 编辑：kuaileyingyu
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