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Standard I: Knowledge of Students
Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English draw on their understanding of child and adolescent development, value their students as individuals, and actively acquire knowledge of their students to foster their students’ skills and interests as individual language learners.
Accomplished teachers of world languages other than English create classrooms in which all students can learn a new language. Teachers make decisions about instructional content and strategies based on their knowledge of the learning styles, backgrounds, experiences, and goals of their individual students, as well as on their own knowledge of language acquisition.
除英语之外世界语言优秀教师创设所有学生都能学习新语言的课堂。 根据教师对学生的学习风格、学习背景、学习经验和学习目标,以及教师自身对语言习得的了解,教师对教学内容和教学策略有决策权。
Understanding the Diverse Ways in Which Students Grow and Develop
Accomplished teachers of world languages are keenly aware that young people learn in various ways and at varying paces. They use their knowledge of child and adolescent development in designing and providing appropriate instruction to their students. They recognize and make professional accommodations for variations in students’ age levels; cognitive, physical, and motor development; gender; multiple intelligences; and learning styles. Attitude also plays an important role in student success. Students with low selfesteem or little confidence about their ability to learn another language might benefit from extra encouragement from the teacher. Of course, all students can benefit from positive teacher feedback. Teachers might have students work in groups so that they can also benefit from the help and positive reinforcement of their peers. Students who are motivated and confident might work well independently, using computer software that gives them instant feedback and the ability to pace themselves. Those who teach young children know the importance of working at concrete levels; students might, for example, learn how to play a game native to the culture studied, learn to tell time as they manipulate individual student clocks, or learn children’s songs while using hand and body movements. Older students might practice rdering a meal in a restaurant or learn the procedure for making a telephone call from another country. As students mature, teachers provide more abstract and analytical challenges. For example, older students could plan an excursion on the subway of another country or analyze and discuss viewpoints and perspectives from the target culture on the basis of current events. Teachers are aware that personalizing the language experience is helpful to students because many students will talk readily about themselves and their experiences. Teachers recognize that providing learning experiences in the affective domain (which includes motivation, self-esteem, risk taking, attitudes, and willingness to cooperate with peers) by encouraging open-ended personal expression is a valuable way of enhancing students’ cognitive ability, cultural understanding, and linguistic proficiency. Teachers provide a range of meaningful, interesting, and personally relevant instruction for students at all levels of development or ability. Teachers constantly monitor and adjust to students’ needs, allowing for individual learners'differences while keeping in focus the continuum of language learning. Teachers are also alert to students’ social development as they enter adolescence and their relationships with peers and adults change. Accomplished teachers use their knowledge of these student characteristics as assets to enhance learning, to provide opportunities for more autonomous learning and group nteraction, and to set the highest goals for all students at all development stages.
Understanding the Diverse Backgrounds That Students Bring to the Classroom
Accomplished teachers learn as much as possible about the backgrounds of their students and use this information to shape instructional decisions. Although class size and teaching load affect the depth of knowledge that teachers can acquire about students, accomplished teachers do their best to understand their students as individuals. The relationships that teachers develop with their students not only support student learning and development but also provide teachers with perspectives by which to view aspects of students’ character, values, interests, talents, and goals. Practically everything about the learner is relevant information in language instruction, including the student’s cultural, racial, linguistic, and ethnic heritage; religious affiliation; exceptional learning needs; sexual orientation; family setting; socioeconomic status; prior learning experiences; and personal interests, needs, and goals. Accomplished teachers of world languages are particularly sensitive to such cultural, family, and personal distinctions and promote respect for others by modeling respect for the differences among students. They make respect for others the basis for all interactions in the class.
Knowledge of students also includes familiarity with the curricula of their other academic classes as well as awareness of various aspects of youth culture at home and in areas where the language is studied or spoken; these might include television programs and movies students watch, music they listen to, sports they play, and other activities in which they involve themselves. The accomplished teacher takes this diverse knowledge into account in the daily interactions within the classroom. Teachers thus connect students'experiences with their explorations of world languages, making the classroom activities relevant to students'lives.
Accomplished teachers employ various means of learning about students, their communities, and their social and cultural environments. They listen to and observe students actively and willingly in various settings in which students express themselves, whether in formal classroom discussions, individual conferences, or informal gatherings. They enhance their understanding of students through discussions with family members, other teachers, school counselors, special education teachers, and other educational and administrative staff. They use the information they gather, including their identification of students with exceptional talents, needs, or challenges, to ensure that they meet both the unique and common needs of all students.
优秀教师知晓学生以前的语言经验。教师意识到学生把大量不同的语言背景带到课堂,包括生长在单语言---英语环境的经验;国外生活或旅游的经验;参加语言沉浸项目的经验;双语教育的经验;与经常使用非英语语言的家庭成员交流的经验。对于某些学生而言,正在学的语言是他们的第三或第四语言。在了解班级中(或学校或学区中)学生的不同语言经验与能力之后,优秀教师让所有学生在依靠其自身的背景知识,将学生的学习最佳化。教师对拥有所学语言背景的家庭继承语言使用者(heritage speaker)体现出特殊的敏感。比如,教师鼓励学生与全班同学分享他们的以往学习目标语的经验。他们确保学生在其继承语言中提高语言能力与读写技能,继承语言能够成为这些学生成功习得其它语言(可能包括英语)的基础。教师认识到多元的语言经验能够当作学生学业成功的框架以及丰富整个学习共同体的源泉。教师还可以扩充学生拥有不止一种语言能力的益处---如二战期间美国印第安部落的纳瓦霍人(Navajo)在维系同盟国通信中的角色,以及行政事务、外交与国家安全;地方、国家与国际事务中拥有双语或多语人群的好处。教师在设计课程大纲、课堂作业、教学策略以及评价技巧时,将语言经验的多元性视为促进追求学生学业目标的益处。优秀教师还探索和调查有潜力的学校与学区项目,以更好地促进继承语言学习者以及其他战线多元语言经验学习者的学习。
Understanding the Diverse Language Experiences That Students Bring to the Classroom
Accomplished teachers are informed about students’ previous language experiences. Teachers recognize that students bring to the classroom a wide variety of language backgrounds, including the experiences of growing up in a monolingual, English-speaking environment; living or traveling abroad; participating in language immersion programs; having a bilingual education; and interacting with family members who regularly speak a language other than English. For some students, the language being studied is their third or fourth language. Knowing the variety of experiences and abilities within a class (and perhaps within the school or district), accomplished teachers reach out to all students to build on their individual background knowledge and maximize their learning. Teachers demonstrate particular sensitivity toward heritage speakers with backgrounds in the language studied. Teachers, for instance, encourage students to share with the entire class their prior learning experiences in the target language. They work to ensure that students build language competence and literacy skills in their heritage language and that the heritage language can form the foundation for successful acquisition of additional languages, which may include English. Teachers recognize that diverse language experiences can serve as a framework for academic success and as a source of enrichment for the entire learning community. Teachers also expand student knowledge of the usefulness of competence in more than one language—using such examples as the role of Navajo speakers in maintaining Allied communications in World War II—and the advantages of having bilingual or multilingual people in civil service; diplomatic and national security positions; and local, national, and international business.
标签:教师 美国 外语
2010-01-21 23:31 编辑:kuaileyingyu