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2012年6月18日更新GMAT阅读机经(二)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:1762 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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      25. 计算机软件申请专利的三种困难

  V大半屏。讲computer software申请专利的三种困难。第一种:很多研发者不清楚自己的新发明是否已被申请专利了,毕竟research不能体现出岁一样的专利信息。第二种:申请者怀疑examiners不能区分众多专利哪些是过程,哪些是结果(表达得不好,见谅~)---考点集中在本段,重点看。第三种:太多相同的专利同时被申请,但只能授权给一个,导致可能不公平,让一些企业从中渔翁得利。

  26.鸟学说话

  V1有一个很长的讲的是captive的鸟学人话啊学说话什么的,有一段的结论是鸟和parents and sublings(类似的词)比较沟通多。(记不清啦) by yuantengxuanwu

  考古:

  V1.还有一篇是说Starling的。一开始我还以为是说斯大林同志。。后来才知道是一只鸟。现在查字典好像叫什么星掠鸟。科学家研究这种鸟的习性很麻烦,需要花很多很多的时间精力,所以不好研究(此处有考题问为什么鸟的习性不好研究)。后来科学家发现可以从starling会模仿(mimic)各种voice来研究它们的生活和social 啥的。接著就是一个实验,没怎么看懂,是研究这种鸟在不同情况下模仿声音的不同程度。并且surprisingly的是它可以模仿的声音可以发出不同的tone的音调。发现这是一种鸟的social 的一种方式。最后一段说这种鸟从小为了得到食物就开始模仿父母和附近“邻居”(这里是不是邻居我不确定,但这里有考题,就是问小鸟为了成长是怎样做的,我选了通过模仿父母和“邻居”的声音)。By sunny7648

  V2關於starling---八哥的研究,這是一種叫聲音域(compass)很寬的的鳥,甚至與模仿人的聲音(鳥類中的和旋手機),說得是以前很少有這方面的研究(有題),因為需要大範圍,長時間的研究,而這通常做不到。然後說現在通過實驗可以做到。。據了一個可行的例子證明瞭八哥可以通過和人的接觸(有題)就會模仿人的聲音。所以得出一個結論,八哥小時候就開始接受家庭的音樂薰陶了(有題)。

  題目:

  1)主題題:describe an experiment researching a phenomenon(我選的,還有一個選項比較模糊,建議大家再看看)

  2)如果下面哪個成立,說明這個實驗沒道理?(感覺像邏輯)。在幼鳥即使在人一句話都沒說的那組,一樣能學會發音。

  3)在wild的情況,幼鳥如何vocalize. 答:學習他們的parents and sibling

  4) 為什麼科學研究會少?答:(1)因為flock and vocalize too much, too frequently。2)因為需要大範圍,長時間的研究,而這通常做不到。然後說現在通過實驗可以做到

  V3第一段:一種鳥(也不認識),能模仿人的講話等,但是很少有科學實驗記錄這種鳥在wide裏面的模仿能力。為什麼呢?因為…(羅裏巴索給了回答,題目竟然考到了,paraphrase一下)。第二段:但是,科學家還是做了實驗來看這種鳥的模仿人的講話。這個實驗中,鳥兒們被分成了好幾組,有的呢和人沒有什麼接觸,有的呢和人有很多接觸。(此處有一個考點,問哪個不是這個實驗的特徵,選“鳥兒們和人有很多對話的”要仔細看,鳥兒們和人親密接觸,但是並沒有和人有語言交流)。然後實驗發現:鳥兒們很厲害啊,能模仿人講話不說,還能模仿不同的語調。而且,和人們有更多接觸的鳥兒們更愛顯擺inference就是鳥兒們對於周圍的環境很有interest)。第三段,忘了…考點都在前兩段。”。

  (疑似)原文未缩减gitarrelieber节选自Social influences on vocal development (@ Cambridge University Press 1997).Author: Charles T. Snowdon, Martine Hausberger

  The vocal talent of starlings has been known since antiquity, when Pliny considered their ability to mimic human speech noteworthy. Ornithologists know that this species possesses a rich repertoire of call and songs, composed of whistles, clicks, snarls, and screeches. In addition, starlings are well known for their ability to mimic the sounds of other animals or even mechanical noises. Descriptions of starling song in the past reflect the difficulty of describing all the variety of sounds included. Witherby mentioned a “lively rambling melody of throaty warbling, chiring, clicking and gurgling notes interspersed with musical whistles and pervaded by a peculiar creaking quality.”

  This complexity explains why detailed studies of starling song have delayed long after the arrival of the sound spectrograph. As mentioned by West & King, “the problem with starlings is that they vocalized too much, too often and in too great numbers, sometimes in choruses numbering in the thousands. Even the seemingly elementary step of creating an accurate catalogue of the vocal repertoire of wild starlings is an intimidating task because of the variety of their sounds.”

  Chaiken have compared the sons of young males raised in different social conditions: either with a wild-caught adult song tutor, individually housed but tape-tutored by a tape-recording or raised in total isolation. All birds had been taken from the nest at an early age (8-10 days) and were hand raised. Untutored birds produced mostly an abnormal song, where even the basic organization of song was missing. In contrast, both tape- and live-tutored birds developed songs with a normal basic organization, but with some syntactical abnormalities for the tape-tutored birds. Tape-tutored birds had repertoires half as large as those of live-tutored birds. Large differences occurred between both groups of birds in their …

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2012-07-11 18:34 编辑:cwf1986
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