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现代女性真正要什么?

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如果你是40年前阅读本杂志的一个女人,很有可能买这本杂志的钱是你的丈夫提供的。而且你也会和他一样进行选举。如果你得了乳腺癌,医院可能会要求他签署乳房切除术知情同意书。你的儿子会去大学读书,而你的女儿却不行。如果你有一份工作的话你得到的报酬也会低,你的老板还会跟你解释说你只是挣点零花钱而已。
If you were a woman reading this magazine 40 years ago, the odds were good that your husband provided the money to buy it. That you voted the same way he did. That if you got breast cancer, he might be asked to sign the form authorizing a mastectomy. That your son was heading to college but not your daughter. That your boss, if you had a job, could explain that he was paying you less because, after all, you were probably working just for pocket money.
有趣的是,在我们意识到这已经完全改变了之前这些事情改变的是多么的缓慢。据估计,到今年年底美国大多数的工作人员将会是女人——主要是由于经济下滑把男性打击的太严重了。这是一代人里面非常了不起的转变,而且它还正在加速:据劳工统计局的数据显示,增长前景最好的工作都是在偏女性化的工作里面,像护理、零售以及客户服务业。越来越多地女人承担起养家糊口的重任(40%),或者是为家庭收入底线提供重要的一部分。她们的购买力得到了空前的提高,而且她们的选择也从来没有这么艰难过。
It's funny how things change slowly, until the day we realize they've changed completely. It's expected that by the end of the year, for the first time in history the majority of workers in the U.S. will be women — largely because the downturn has hit men so hard. This is an extraordinary change in a single generation, and it is gathering speed: the growth prospects, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, are in typically female jobs like nursing, retail and customer service. More and more women are the primary breadwinner in their household (almost 40%) or are providing essential income for the family's bottom line. Their buying power has never been greater — and their choices have seldom been harder.
正是在这样的背景下,洛克菲勒基金会和《时代》杂志合作进行了一项关于性别问题的里程碑式的研究,并且评估美国人对此的反应。性别之争是不是真的成为了历史?如果是,谁赢了?现在的男人如何看待女性的权力?对于重塑家庭生活,重新点燃经济发展潜力并且重新定义性别角色的力量,人们到底怀有怎样的怨恨、困惑或者说是感激之情?如果有的话,大家会认为什么发生了才会让这一切起效?本研究发现,对于那些对他们最重要的事情来说,男人和女人还是存在广泛的一致意见的、女人的崛起是以牺牲男人为代价这一观点已经过时了。由于旧经济秩序阶梯,父母们面对的压力增加,他们对这一切将如何影响他们的孩子感到忧虑,他们也对那些拒绝承认这一改变的机构感到愤怒。在新的时代里面,我们一起面对的挑战就是那些定义我们的。
It is in this context that the Rockefeller Foundation, in collaboration with TIME, conducted a landmark survey of gender issues to assess how individual Americans are reacting. Is the battle of the sexes really over, and if so, did anyone win? How do men now view female power? How much resentment or confusion or gratitude is there for the forces that have rearranged family life, rewired the economy and reinvented gender roles? And what, if anything, does everyone agree needs to happen to make all this work? The study found that men and women were in broad agreement about what matters most to them; gone is the notion that women's rise comes at men's expense. As the Old Economy dissolves and pressures on working parents grow, they share their fears about what this means for their children and their frustration with institutions that refuse to admit how much has changed. In the new age, the battles we fight together are the ones that define us.
静静的革命
A Quiet Revolution
1972年春天正是“妇女解放运动”斗争的时期,《时代》杂志出版了一起专刊来评估妇女的地位。那时的美国社会就像一个冒失的青少年那样飞速经历各种变革,而女权主义在这一时期也停滞不前了。和男性相比,女性的工资实际上是降低了;在高级政府部门里面女性的比例(4%)要比4年前还低。自从艾森豪威尔针政府以来就没有女性内阁成员;也没有女性联邦调查局特工,电视节目主持人或者最高法院法官。全国的校园都在孕育社会的反叛,然而哈佛大学的421位终身职员里面只有4位女性。在那之前的40年里面,现代艺术博物馆举办的每一千个个人作品展出里面只有五个是女性。猎头公司曾经曾遗憾地说,把女人送进办公室比把男人送上月球都还要难。“根本就没有任何进展,”有位活动家这么说。在全国女性联盟建立两年之后,她因为没有任何进展而辞去了领导职务。“改变意味着总要有什么事发生,但是这次变革却什么都没有。它什么都没有做到。”
In the spring of 1972, TIME devoted a special issue of the magazine to assessing the status of women in the throes of "women's lib." At a time when American society was racing through change like a reckless teenager, feminism had sputtered and stalled. Women's average wages had actually fallen relative to men's; there were fewer women in the top ranks of civil service (under 2%) than there were four years before. No woman had served in the Cabinet since the Eisenhower Administration; there were no female FBI agents or network-news anchors or Supreme Court Justices. The nation's campuses were busy hosting a social revolt, yet Harvard's tenured faculty of 421 included only six women. Of the Museum of Modern Art's 1,000 one-man shows over the previous 40 years, five were by women. Headhunters lamented that it was easier to put a man on the moon than a woman in a corner office. "There is no movement," complained an activist who resigned her leadership position in the National Organization for Women two years after it was founded. "Movement means 'going someplace,' and the movement is not going anywhere. It hasn't accomplished anything." (Read TIME's 1972 cover story "Where She Is and Where She's Going.")
那是有点夸大了;我们更多的是能够感受到很多变化。现在人们的希望和期待已经开始动摇父权的根基了。“说到真正的政治和经济权力,我们才刚刚开始,”Gloria Steinem说。“但是我们的觉醒,我们的意识不会再和以前一样。”
That was cranky exaggeration; many changes were felt more than seen, a shift in hopes and expectations that cracked the foundations of patriarchy. "In terms of real power — economic and political — we are still just beginning," Gloria Steinem admitted. "But the consciousness, the awareness — that will never be the same."
所以,当我们忙于结束冷战的时候,当我们忙于建立多文化融合的社会的时候,当我们享受有史以来时间最长的经济繁荣的时候,停下来看看身边正在发生的事情是非常有必要的。当我们汲汲于日常琐事之中的时候,生活得过且过,记住一些标志性事件,在厨房的门上测量孩子的身高并且错过那些社会发展趋势是非常容易的事。1972年,高中生里面从事体育运动的女孩子只有7%;现在这个数字已经是其6倍了。以前大学校园男性占了60%,现在这个比例反过来了,而且法学院以及医学院的学位有一半颁发给了女性。1970年这一数据只有10%多一点。常青藤联盟大学校长有一半是女性,而且三大电视节目主持人也将成为女性。最近的四个国务卿有三个是女性。全世界有145个基金致力于提高妇女权利,他们相信这是解决贫困和疾病的最有效手段;1972年,只有一个针对女性的主要基金会(Ms. 基金会)。而且,诺贝尔奖也创造了同时有五位女性获奖的历史(医学、化学、经济学以及文学)。在刚刚过去的大选里面,希拉里·克林顿,萨拉·佩林,蒂娜·费以及凯蒂·库里克都成为了主力选手,而不像过去那样作为幕后人员。现任的美国总统是由一位单亲母亲抚养成人的,他娶了一个挣得比他多,地位比他高的律师做妻子。
So it's worth stopping to look at what happened while we were busy ending the Cold War and building a multicultural society and enjoying the longest economic expansion in history. In the slow-motion fumblings of family life, it was easy just to keep going along, mark the milestones, measure the kids on the kitchen door and miss the movement. In 1972 only 7% of students playing high school sports were girls; now the number is six times as high. The female dropout rate has fallen in half. College campuses used to be almost 60-40 male; now the ratio has reversed, and close to half of law and medical degrees go to women, up from fewer than 10% in 1970. Half the Ivy League presidents are women, and two of the three network anchors soon will be; three of the four most recent Secretaries of State have been women. There are more than 145 foundations designed to empower women around the world, in the belief that this is the greatest possible weapon against poverty and disease; there was only one major foundation (the Ms. Foundation) for women in 1972. For the first time, five women have won Nobel Prizes in the same year (for Medicine, Chemistry, Economics and Literature). We just came through an election year in which Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, Tina Fey and Katie Couric were lead players, not the supporting cast. And the President of the United States was raised by a single mother and married a lawyer who outranked and outearned him.
董事会、大学教授、立法机关以及像对冲基金管理这一类的工作依然是男性占主导地位;女性占土木工程师的10%,内外科医生的三分之一,但是却有98%的幼儿园老师以及牙医助理是女性,她们的劳动所得和男性相比是77美分对1美元。她们被要求缴纳较高的医疗保险金,但是像基本的避孕、母性护理都要自掏腰包。有时候就会让人感觉,那些可以将工作、孩子、丈夫以及家庭平衡的完美无缺的只会在电视上出现。
It is still true that boardrooms and faculty clubs and legislatures and whole swaths of professions like, say, hedge-fund management remain predominantly male; women are about 10% of civil engineers and a third of physicians and surgeons but 98% of kindergarten teachers and dental assistants, and they still earn 77 cents on the dollar compared with men. They are charged higher premiums for health insurance yet still have greater out-of-pocket expenses for things as basic as contraception and maternity care. At times it seems as if the only women effortlessly balancing their jobs, kids, husbands and homes are the ones on TV.
现在,经济萧条增加了筹码并且将形势重新洗了牌。一个又一个得民意调查显示,女人要比男人更加关注家庭的经济安全。大多数工人的工资停滞不前甚至下降了。2008年,女人的收入降低了2%,是男人的两倍。女人接受次优级抵押贷款的可能性比男人高32%,这让她们更加容易受到房地产市场危机的冲击。葛特麦尔研究院发现经济衰退已经影响到了家庭生活中最基本的决定了。在收入低于7万5千美元的家庭里面,有将近一半的女人想要推迟怀孕或者限制自己的孩子数量。同时,由于工资水平的差距缩小,女人在这场危机之后所掌握的经济权力也更大了。吉孚富凯罗普咨询公司(Gfk Roper)为NBC进行的一项调查揭示了家庭财产权的全新涵义:65%的女人成为她们家庭的主要经济计划者,而71%将自己成为家庭会计师。据MRI信息公司的调查结果显示,女人现在做出美国家庭75%购买决定。总的来说,女性控制着历史上前所未有的财富。
Now the recession raises the stakes and shuffles the deck. Poll after poll finds women even more anxious than men about their family's financial security. While most workers have seen their wages stall or drop, women's earnings fell 2% in 2008, twice as much as men's. Women are 32% more likely than men to have subprime mortgages, leaving them more vulnerable in the housing crisis. The Guttmacher Institute found that the downturn has affected the most basic decisions in family life. Nearly half of women surveyed in households earning less than $75,000 want to delay pregnancy or limit the number of children they have. At the same time, women are poised to emerge from the downturn with even greater relative economic power as the wage gap narrows. A new survey by GfK Roper for NBC Universal gives a whole new meaning to the power of the purse: 65% of women reported being their family's chief financial planner, and 71% called themselves the family accountant. According to a Mediamark Research & Intelligence survey, they make 75% of the buying decisions in American homes. Together, women control more wealth than ever in history.
进步永远不会轻易到来;它到来的路上充满了代价和伤亡,甚至还有这么一个改变到底代表了一个进步还是倒退都不一定。《时代》调查提供了这两方面的证据。最基本地,女人属于什么地方这种问题已经过去了;性别之争已经变成了像《米德尔马奇》或者《疯子》这样的古装戏。不同性别、不同收入水平、不同意识形态的多数人都认为,女人在劳动力市场上的角色越来越重要在总体上对经济社会发展都是有益的。每10个人里面有超过8个人认为,母亲在工作上的效率和父亲或者没有孩子的工人是一样高的。还有就是,大约84%的人确认夫妻之间会在家庭规则、关系以及各自的责任上面进行协商,这个比例比以前的任何时代都要高;每10个人里面大约有7个人说,在女人外出工作这件事上面他们要比他们的父亲更加从容,而女人则说她们要比自己的母亲对配偶的经济依赖性更低。
Progress is seldom simple; it comes with costs and casualties, even challenges about whether a change represents an advance or a retreat. The TIME survey provides evidence of both. At the most basic level, the argument over where women belong is over; the battle of the sexes becomes a costume drama, like Middlemarch or Mad Men. Large majorities, across ages and incomes and ideologies, view women's growing role in the workforce as good for both the economy and society in general. More than 8 in 10 say mothers are just as productive at work as fathers or childless workers are. Even more, some 84% affirm that husbands and wives negotiate the rules, relationships and responsibilities more than those of earlier generations did; roughly 7 in 10 men say they are more comfortable than their fathers were with women working outside the home, while women say they are less financially dependent on their spouse than their mother was.
这并不是说没有什么可以争论的了。超过三分之二的女人认为男人们痛恨有权势的女人,而女人比男人更加容易认为,女上司比男上司更难伺候。男人更容易说,女性进步没有什么障碍了,而大多数女人还是认为男人过得更好些。而对于在工作和非工作母亲之间的“母亲战争”的观点上正反双方基本持平。
This is not to say there's nothing left to argue about. More than two-thirds of women still think men resent powerful women, yet women are more likely than men to say female bosses are harder to work for than male ones. Men are much more likely to say there are no longer any barriers to female advancement, while a majority of women say men still have it better in life. People are evenly split over whether the "mommy wars" between working and nonworking mothers are finally over.
同样让人震惊的是,上一代人争论不休的问题这一代人是多么的认同。“发生的太快了,”Gail Collins在其新书《当每件事都改变时》(When Everything Changed)中写到,“甚至双方都还没有找到通向障碍的路这一变革似乎就已经过去了。”人们忙得都来不及去争论谁该去倒垃圾或者谁该拿到角落办公室似乎也合情合理了。许多深层次的内心斗争是男女都共有的。特别是在没有社会支持,没有灵活工作安排以及可承受的儿童护理的情况下,大多数人都认为男主外女主内对孩子来说是最好的。在过去的这一代人的时间里面,最为显著的变化时婚姻和做母亲的分离;男人比女人更加认为婚姻对他们的快乐“非常重要”。女人不再把婚姻作为通往经济安全和成为父母的必经之路。单身母亲生于的孩子已经从12%跃升到39%。上个世纪70年代中期,多数孩子都是由一个在家的家长带大的,现在这个比例已经不足三分之一,而且将近有三分之二的人认为这对美国社会是不利的。
But just as striking is how much men and women agree on issues that divided them a generation ago. "It happened so fast," writes Gail Collins in her new book, When Everything Changed, "that the revolution seemed to be over before either side could really find its way to the barricades." It's as though sensible people are too busy to bother bickering about who takes out the garbage or who deserves the corner office; many of the deepest conflicts are now ones that men and women share. Especially in the absence of social supports, flexible work arrangements and affordable child care, it's hardly surprising that a majority of both men and women still say it is best for children to have a father working and a mother at home. Among the most dramatic changes in the past generation is the detachment of marriage and motherhood; more men than women identified marriage as "very important" to their happiness. Women no longer view matrimony as a necessary station on the road to financial security or parenthood. The percentage of children born to single women has leaped from 12% to 39%. Whereas a majority of children in the mid-1970s were raised by a stay-at-home parent, the portion is now less than a third, and nearly two-thirds of people say this has been a negative for American society.
最为让人想不通的就是,女人的自由、教育以及经济权利变大的同时她们却没有以前快乐了。这一点已经被许多调查所证实了。没有什么可信的解释,宾夕法尼亚大学的经济学家Justin Wolfers说。他与人合著了《女性幸福感下降的矛盾》(The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness)。“我们研究了所有的部分——年轻与年老的,有小孩与没有小孩的,结婚与未婚的,受教育与未受教育的,工作或者是没有工作的——结果都是一样的,”他这么描述他的数据。“但是有几种看待这个事情的方法,”他补充道。“正如Susan和Faludi说的,女权运动不是关于幸福的。”或许是这样让女人对什么让她们不快更加的诚实了。或者是她们现在可以更加自由的和那些压力、矛盾斗争了,而这一切曾经使得男性非常不快乐。或者是处在全球经济中的现代生活让每个人都有压力,但是对女人压力更大些。她们长时间工作之后回家还得接着操劳。“在过去的35年里面发生的一些家庭、工作上的变化可能对男女的影响不一样,”Wolfers说。“所以,或许我们看到的不是女性运动带来的变化,而是社会中的变化。”
Among the most confounding changes of all is the evidence, tracked by numerous surveys, that as women have gained more freedom, more education and more economic power, they have become less happy. No tidy theory explains the trend, notes University of Pennsylvania economist Justin Wolfers, a co-author of The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness. "We looked across all sectors — young vs. old, kids or no kids, married or not married, education, no education, working or not working — and it stayed the same," he says of the data. "But there are a few ways to look at it," he adds. "As Susan Faludi said, the women's movement wasn't about happiness." It may be that women have become more honest about what ails them. Or that they are now free to wrestle with the same pressures and conflicts that once accounted for greater male unhappiness. Or that modern life in a global economy is simply more stressful for everyone but especially for women, who are working longer hours while playing quarterback at home. "Some of the other social changes that have happened over the last 35 years — changes in family, in the workplace — may have affected men differently than women," Wolfers says. "So maybe we're not learning about changes due to the women's movement but changes in society."
这个谜中的任何部分都在变化。最简单的一件事就是,当我们作为男人女人,作为爱人、父母、合作伙伴,把现代生活中的方方面面整合到一起时非常困难的;总有一些事要做出让步。男人和女人声称感受到日常生活的数量相一致,并且大多数都同意,政府和企业都没有调整好以适应现代生活。传统经济模式在我们的眼前消失了,当被问到关于金钱、健康、工作和家庭的时候,男人和女人的期望非常的一致。如果男性的工作持续小时,如果体力失去其工作价值,如果收入和教育更加相关——在这里女性做的越来越好,那么不久之后我们就会有一个类似的讨论:要让美国男人充分发挥其潜力,我们要做什么?在下一代人之内你可以看到这一个讨论甚嚣尘上的。
All the shapes in the puzzle are shifting. If there is anything like consensus on an issue as basic as how we live our lives as men and women, as lovers, parents, partners, it's that getting the pieces of modern life to fit together is hard enough; something has to bend. Equal numbers of men and women report frequent stress in daily life, and most agree that government and businesses have failed to adjust to the changes in the family. As the Old Economy dissolves before our eyes, men and women express remarkably similar life goals when asked about the importance of money, health, jobs and family. If male jobs keep vanishing, if physical strength loses its workplace value, if the premium shifts ever more to education, in which achievement is increasingly female, then we will soon be having parallel conversations: What needs to be done to free American men to realize their full potential? You can imagine the whole conversation flipping in a single generation.
这个世界不再是男人的世界了。它也不是女人的国度。它是在持续的交流之内的有规则的合作,并且期待着成果可以共享。
It's no longer a man's world. Nor is it a woman's nation. It's a cooperative, with bylaws under constant negotiation and expectations that profits be equally shared.
标签:女性 现代
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2009-10-27 22:46 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • Guest 说:

    very good article....!!!!
    As a mordern OL ,i totally agree and support!!

    2009-11-12 10:47 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
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