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青霉素已经“过时”

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新的研究表明,青霉素已经开始过时了,如果政府不进行新药研究的话,抗生素的耐药性会导致“大规模的身体危机”。
New research suggests penicillin is becoming obsolete, and antibiotic resistance could lead to a "major health crisis" unless governments act to promote research into new drugs. Over prescription of antibiotics means drugs including penicillin are becoming obsolete.
在过去的60年间,青霉素和其他的抗生素是抵抗传染病的关键,但是病菌对现有药物的抵抗性也在增加。
Antibiotics such as penicillin have been key to the decline of infectious diseases over the last 60 years, but bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to existing drugs.
根据伦敦大学政治经济学系(LSE)的一份报告显示,这意味着在针对一般疾病的时候,抗生素已经不是那么有效了,而新药研究的缺乏则是药物选择上的严重错误。
That means many antibiotics are no longer effective at combating common diseases, and a lack of research into new drugs means there is a dire shortage of alternatives, according to the report by London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
Elias Mossialos,LSE的卫生政策系教授,他领导了这次的调查,并且呼吁政府多做些努力来解决这个问题。
Elias Mossialos, professor of health policy at LSE, led the research and has called for governments to do more to tackle the problem.
他告诉CNN,在一些发展中国家,青霉素已经开始过时了,同样的情况也出现在法国,西班牙和罗马尼亚,这是由于医生和药剂师开出过多的处方而导致的。他还说道,像耐药性葡萄球菌(MRSA)这种“超级病菌”的出现,是医院感染问题增加的原因。
He told CNN that penicillin is becoming obsolete in some developing countries, as well as in France, Spain and Romania, because of over-prescription by doctors and pharmacists. He said the emergence of "superbugs" such as methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is causing the growing problem of hospital-acquired infections.
他说:“抗生素抗性的问题比猪流感的情况严重的多,而且它只会继续恶化。”
"Antibiotic resistance is a much more important situation than swine flu and it will only get worse," he said.
他说医生通常都把细菌感染误诊为病毒感染,然后用抗生素以治疗。与此同时,在一些国家,即使没有医生的处方,药剂师也会出售抗生素。过度使用抗生素激发了抗药性病菌的出现。
He said doctors are commonly misdiagnosing viral infections as bacterial infections, and then prescribing antibiotics to treat them, while in some countries pharmacists are selling antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. Excessive use of antibiotics encourages the emergence of resistant bacteria.
世卫组织的Kathleen Holloway博士告诉CNN,抗生素抗性是一个全球性的问题,在一些地区,一流的抗生素已经对包括像小儿肺炎,痢疾和肺结核等疾病不起效果了。
Dr Kathleen Holloway of the World Health Organization (WHO) told CNN that antibiotic resistance is a global problem, with diseases including childhood pneumonia, dysentery and tuberculosis (TB) no longer responding to first-line antibiotics in some parts of the world.
“我们陷入了一个困境,再也没有其他的药物来治疗特定的疾病。一些人患上了严重的抗药性肺结核,无药可医。”Holloway说道。
"We've got to a situation where there are no more drugs for certain conditions. There are some people with extreme drug-resistant TB and there are no drugs to treat them," Holloway said.
“新型抗生素的研发跟不上病菌抗性的发展。假如我们再不做点什么的话,最终我们的状况就是,所有的老药都产生了抗性,而我们还没有新药。”
Each month CNN's Dr. Sanjay Gupta brings viewers health stories from around the world. "Research and development of new antibiotics isn't keeping up with development of resistance. If we don't do something about it we'll end up with a situation where all the old drugs have resistance and we don't have any new ones."
Mossialos认为,新型抗生素研发的不足很大程度上是因为抗生素不像其他商品一样能够使制药公司获利。
Mossialos said the lack of development of new antibiotics is largely because antibiotics don't earn pharmaceutical companies as much as other products.
这在一定程度上是因为卫生政策设法遏制抗生素的使用,避免抗性的增加。另一部分原因是,病人服用抗生素的时间很短,大多只有10-14天,而余生则都在服药治疗一些像糖尿病和心脏病这种慢性疾病。
That's partly because health policy tries to restrain the use of antibiotics, to avoid building up resistance, and partly because patients only need to use antibiotics for a short duration, typically 10 to 14 days, whereas patients take drugs for chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease for the rest of their lives.
Mossialos还告诉CNN,政府应该让制药公司了解到这些诱因,以鼓励制药公司研发新的抗生素。
Mossialos told CNN that governments need to introduce incentives to encourage pharmaceutical companies to develop new antibiotics.
他的建议包括:政府设置一项国际基金,可以在抗生素研发的初步阶段进行投资;保证新型抗生素有大量订单。
His recommendations include governments developing an international fund that would invest in the early stages of antibiotic R&D, and guarantee sizeable orders for new antibiotics.
Holloway也赞同政府应该帮助刺激新抗生素的发展。她还强调,推进对现有药物的谨慎使用还需要更多投资。
Holloway agrees governments should help stimulate the development of new antibiotics and also stresses that more investment is needed to promote more prudent use of existing drugs.
“在很多国家,能开处方的不一定非要是医生,护士,医辅人员和其他的一些没有资格的职员都可以,”Holloway说,“政府需要在对开处方者的继续医疗教育和管理上加大投入。”
"In many countries it's not necessarily doctors who are prescribing, it's nurses, paramedical staff and unqualified staff," she said. "Governments need to invest more in providing continuing medical education and supervision for prescribers.
“假如我们把抗生素用光了,那么不仅仅是受感染的穷人要遭罪,还有那些不能获得抗癌疗法跟常规手术而只能依靠抗生素的富人一样要遭罪。”
"If we run out of antibiotics it's not just poor people with infections who will suffer, it's rich people who won't be able to have anti-cancer therapies or routine operations that rely on antibiotics."
标签:青霉素
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2009-10-25 17:24 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • Guest 说:

    汗!
    英语严重退步
    看这些很吃力
    要恶补了。。。。

    2009-10-27 10:55 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
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