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2012年6月英语四级六级写作应急策略

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在四六级写作中,同学们往往会出现提笔忘词的现象。本来很好的构思往往被一个想不起来的单词硬生生地破坏了。如何应付这种情况使我们的写作思路如行云流水一般顺畅呢?下面三种简便易行的应急措施可能会对你有所帮助。

一、换用笼统词

词大体可分为两类:笼统词和具体词。笼统词的特点在于意义广泛、搭配性强。虽然它们独自不能精确表达一个动作,但在构成词组以后可替代很多具体词。写作中遇到一些具体词写不出来的时候,用笼统词取代,能收到异曲同工之妙。最常用的笼统词有 have,take等。

例:迈克经历了一个极其艰苦的时代。Mike experienced a terrible hard time.写作时,若忘记了experience可用笼统词have代替,写成Mike had a terrible hard time.同样能收到预期效果。这样的例子还很多。如:
Do you understand my meaning, sir? = Do you take my meaning, sir?
I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting.
I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper.
They occupied the city. = They took the city.
The boy resembles his father. = The boy takes after his father.

从以上的例句不难看出,具体词音节较多,使用频率不高,容易遗忘,而笼统词则不然。因此,在作文应试中,笼统词取代具体词,不失为一种应急良策。

二、换用同义词、反义词等相关词汇

遇到未曾学过的词或一时想不起的词时,可采用发散性思维,发挥想象力,尽可能想出与之有关的同义词、反义词,利用语言的内在联系、多层次、多角度地运用语言,使单词受阻现象得以解决。

例:昨晚李雷做了一场恶梦。
Li Lei had a nightmare last night.因nightmare使用率不高,不易记住。但其同义词bad dream易记。上句可换译为:Li Lei had a bad dream last night.

再如:The food is tasty.=The food is nice toeat.=The food is delicious.
We discontinued the work at nine.=We stopped the work at nine.
This woman is talkative.=This woman is never quiet.
This car is expensive.=This car is not cheap.

另外:
He is stupid. = He is foolish. = He is a fool. = He is silly.
The food is delicious. = The food is tasty. = The food is nice to eat.
They discontinued the work at five. = They stopped the work at five.
His temper is nasty. = His temper is terrible. = He has a bad temper.

英语语言中词与词之间是有联系的,词与词之间语义的“共核”现象即所谓的同义词。丰富的同义词给我们提供了极大的方便。

同样,用其反义词来取代某一遗忘了的词也是可行的,请看下面的例子:
He is stubborn. = He is not tame.
The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp.
This is expensive. = This is not cheap.
She is talkative. = She is never quiet.

三、换用迂回表达

当一个词或某些信息表达起来有困难时,要充分利用语言本身词汇丰富、句型多变等特点,进行迂回表达。因为任何一种表达形式,只要能达意便可接受。英语当中多功能解释性语句,就可以起到这一作用。请看下面的句子:
例:1. 我从未见到过这样顽固的人。
I've never seen such a stubborn person.=I've never seen such a person who never listens to other's advice.

2. 如果我们想得到文凭,我们必须首先通过考试。
If we want to obtain a diploma,we must first pass the exams.=If we want to get a graduation paper,we must first pass the exams.

3. 工厂里的烟囱(chimney)拔地而起。
High chimneys have appeared in the factories.=The factories are full of high chimneys.=A lot of high chimneys can be seen in the factories.

4. 他数学考试取得优异成绩,被大学录取了。
He passed the maths exam /succeeded in the maths exam and became a college student.

5. 中午我们吃了野餐。
At noon we had a picnic.=At noon we had our lunch in the open air.

解释性语句能帮助我们巧妙地避开一些大词,难词,又能使意思表达流畅,不失为一聪明之举。比较下面两篇文章:

(1)

Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest is, but all being domineered by it. It represents a trial; the grade its verdict.

Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can dominate one‘s future. I am not exaggerating; for you all know it is true. If we want to obtain a diploma, we must first pass the exams. If we do not have a diploma, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may concern their future.

But as long as examination is on its peak of power, we must be philosophical of it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may indulge ourselves in other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and thoroughly?

(2)

Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all dislike it (hate it), but all being ruled by it. It is a trial; the grade its decision.

Nowadays, examination has become a popular form of testing. It almost can control one‘s future. I am telling the truth, for you all know it is true. If we want to get a graduation paper, we may not find a job easily. That is the reason why all students are nervous and pale when they are sitting for an important examination which may have something to do with their future.

But as long as examination is on its highest point of power, we must have a calm attitude to it. Do not always think of the harm that it brings, but think of the good it may do to us. If we do not have exams, we may spend our time on other things instead of books. Exams have to always drive us on. What is wrong for learning more and deeply?

比较两篇文章,第一篇短小精干,用词准确,不失为一篇优秀作文。而第二篇全篇采用最普通的词汇,意思同样清楚,也不失得体,流畅。

四六级作文只要层次清晰,语法正确就能拿到较好的分数。所以同学们如果过于纠结于用一些自己难于掌握的大词和难词,往往花了时间,还得不到应有的效果。我们应该灵活地使用一些简单易掌握的表达方式传达我们丰富多彩的内容,以便最大限度地发挥我们的英语水平。希望同学们放送心态,掌握技巧,稳拿写作高分! 


2
2012-06-15 12:41 编辑:甯老师
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