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研究:未来女人将会变矮变胖

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未来的女性和现在相比可能会矮一些,但更加丰满,她们的心脏将更健康,生育期也将更长。这一预测的最有力证据,就是人类至今仍在进化。
Women of the future are likely to be slightly shorter and plumper, have healthier hearts and longer reproductive windows. These changes are predicted by the strongest proof to date that humans are still evolving.
医学的进步使得许多在过去可能英年早逝的人能够活到耄耋之年。这一结果使许多人相信,自然选择在人类身上已经失效,也就是说,我们已经不再进化。
Medical advances mean that many people who once would have died young now live to a ripe old age. This has led to a belief that natural selection no longer affects humans and, therefore, that we have stopped evolving.
“这种观点完全是错误的。”耶鲁大学的进化生物学家斯蒂芬.斯特恩表示,尽管生存压力已经不能影响人类的基因选择,但生殖能力的差异却仍在其中发挥着重要作用。这就使得问题被归结为:子孙兴旺的女性是否会将其本身的某些显著特征传给她们的子孙?
"That's just plain false," says Stephen Stearns, an evolutionary biologist at Yale University. He says although differences in survival may no longer select "fitter" humans and their genes, differences in reproduction still can. The question is whether women who have more children have distinguishing traits which they pass on to their offspring.
为研究这一问题,斯特恩与他的同事们查阅了弗雷明汉心脏研究中心的数据,该中心保存了1948年至今弗雷明汉镇14000多名居民家族两三代人的健康数据。
To find out, Stearns and his colleagues turned to data from the Framingham Heart Study, which has tracked the medical histories of more than 14,000 residents of the town of Framingham, Massachusetts, since 1948 – spanning three generations in some families.
研究小组选取了2238名已过更年期的妇女,并测量了这些女性的身高、体重、血压、胆固醇水平以及其他一些生理指标,以研究这些指标是否与她们生育子女的数量相关。研究小组严格控制了社会及文化因素引起的差异,以便单纯研究自然选择对这些特征的选择性到底有多强。
The team studied 2238 women who had passed menopause and so completed their reproductive lives. For this group, Stearns's team tested whether a woman's height, weight, blood pressure, cholesterol or other traits correlated with the number of children she had borne. They controlled for changes due to social and cultural factors to calculate how strongly natural selection is shaping these traits.
研究结果表明,自然选择的力量还是相当强劲的。平均而言,个儿矮、体重偏高的女性比苗条高挑的女性更倾向于生育后代。血压与胆固醇水平较低的女性养育的子女更多。第一胎时年龄较轻的女性与进入更年期较晚的女性也具有更多的子女。令人惊讶的是,这些特征也遗传给了那些女性的女儿,她们生育子女的数目也远高于平均水平。
Quite a lot, it turns out. Shorter, heavier women tended to have more children, on average, than taller, lighter ones. Women with lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol levels likewise reared more children, and – not surprisingly – so did women who had their first child at a younger age or who entered menopause later. Strikingly, these traits were passed on to their daughters, who in turn also had more children.
如果这种选择持续下去,据斯特恩计算,到2049年,女性的平均身高与现在相比将下降2厘米,体重则将增加1公斤。同时女性怀第一胎的年龄将提前5个月,进入更年期的时间则将推迟10个月。
If these trends continue for 10 generations, Stearns calculates, the average woman in 2409 will be 2 centimetres shorter and 1 kilogram heavier than she is today. She will bear her first child about 5 months earlier and enter menopause 10 months later (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0906199106).
很难说这种选择的原理的是什么,但考虑到斯特恩的研究已经严格控制了社会及文化因素的影响,很容易得出结论:这种选择很可能与遗传基因有关。与前人的研究相比,斯特恩的研究第一次通过检测繁衍后代的数目与生理特征的关系直观地测量了当今人类的进化。
It's hard to say what is selecting for these traits, and to discern whether they are being passed down through the women's genes, but because Stearns controlled for many social and cultural factors, it is likely that his results document genetic, rather than cultural evolution at work.
“尽管文化差异也会影响人类的繁衍,但隐藏在文化差异之下的生物学特性引起的差异仍然可被检测到,这一事实十分的有趣。”斯特恩说。文化与基因在人类进化中所起的作用?这两个因素又如何相互影响?相信通过对更多长期医疗健康数据的研究,这两个问题的答案将更加明了。
"It's interesting that the underlying biological framework is still detectable beneath the culture," he says. Analyses of other long-term medical data sets could shed more light on the interplay between genetics and culture.
标签:女人 研究
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2009-10-23 07:39 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • Guest 说:

    人类 = 后代进化
    后代会变的跟聪明 ,还有跟 高
    还有要看个人的DNA,
    聪明=还 聪明
    SB+SAT=聪明!
    天才 还有 鬼才

    2009-10-23 11:02 回复 支持(0) 反对(1) 沙发
  • Guest 说:

    这个就是人类的原理

    2009-10-23 11:03 回复 支持(0) 反对(1) 板凳
  • Guest 说:

    这个就是人类的原理

    2009-10-23 11:03 回复 支持(0) 反对(1) 地板
  • Guest 说:

    未来的人类是聪明的、精明、后来居上。

    2009-10-23 16:24 回复 支持(0) 反对(1) 4 楼
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