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在中国发财的三条锦囊妙计

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来自中国西安的报道- 八十年代末九十年代初那会,由于众所周知的原因,中国如同孤家寡人,只有一小撮西方企业能够顶着被人戳脊梁骨的骂名坚守在中国。
XIAN, People’s Republic of China – During the politically charged period in the late 1980s and early 1990s – when China believed it really needed friends – a small number of Western companies ignored the controversies and refused to abandon the market.
是哪些企业选择了坚守呢?你可能能想起诸如可口可乐,强生和ABB等响亮的名字。现在看来,他们押对了赌注,奖励他们勇气和坚持是诸如巨大的市场份额,强劲增长的利润和外人难以企及的信任这些令人垂涎的回报。
Global investors will recognize some of the names: The Coca-Cola Co. (NYSE: KO), Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ), and ABB Ltd. (NYSE ADR: ABB). In the years since, their courage and commitment has been rewarded with hefty market shares, growing profits, and a position of trust that’s very tough for an outside firm to obtain.
通篇读完这篇文章,你就知道他们为什么在那里。可以这么说,这些企业也是有关系,有路子的。他们为了关系,和它带来的巨大好处,扛住了最困难的时期。(这句话是我加的,方便大家理解)关系是个地地道道的中国词,在这个充满机会的地方,建立联系网络和开展生意你可离不了它。实际上,如果你想精确地描述关系是怎么回事,我们可以借用社会学家的话,把它解释成为某种社会资本。把关系说明白是挺费劲的,但是通过一个事情你能看的稍微明白点。
These firms also have guanxi. Loosely defined as “connections,” guanxi is actually a Chinese word that refers to the very fabric of how relationships work, and how business is conducted in this growing Asian nation. In fact, trying to better describe just how important this concept actually is, some sociologists have actually likened it to “social capital.” While the definition itself may seem a bit hazy, one fact is crystal clear. The best relationships and biggest profits in China are built upon the trust and long-term interactions embodied by this deceptively simple term. Global investors who take the time to understand what guanxi means – and to identify the companies that actually have it – can expect to reap the biggest windfalls from their China-focused profit plays.
简单来说,在中国为了能得的最好的关系和最大的利益,你得和对方建立信任,长期走动。那些愿意花时间去理解关系意义并能找到有关系的公司的国际投资者,都能在中国市场的盛宴中分一杯羹。
A Different Point of View
一种不同的观点
Talk about “connections” to a Westerner, and the odds are good you’ll get a negative reaction. In the West, a connection can come down to one person owing a second person a favor. But in China, guanxi is about increasing one’s personal standing, about getting respect and about giving it, too. It literally encapsulates every aspect of Chinese society.
在西方,关系往往就是一个人欠另一个人一个人情这么简单。但在中国,一个人有关系,他就有社会地位,就有面子而且人家还肯给他面子。毫不夸张的说,关系渗透到中国社会的方方面面。然而在西方的观念里,关系不涉及到贪渎,虽然这种事往往只有一线之隔,你知道,就像是在其他社会里常见的那样,权力,金钱和利润总能和你认识什么人联系在一起。
Contrary to beliefs here in the West, guanxi has nothing to do with bribery or corruption – although there is admittedly a very fine line here, just as there is anywhere in the world where power, money and profits intersect.
虽然某些形式的关系可以很快起来,就像我的例子里提到的可口可乐,强生和ABB,关系带来的这些有力和有利的好处需要长时间的积累。同样的道理,这就是为什么这么多中国人花这么多时间和金钱来建立,培育和维护他们的关系网络。一旦这关系建立起来,他们原意花一辈子培养,珍惜,甚至保护这种关系。
And while some forms of guanxi can be built up immediately, as my example involving Coke, J&J and ABB demonstrates, the most powerful and profitable benefits of guanxi can take considerable periods to amass.
关系开始的时候是以道德和公平性为基础的。 r如果一家公司的产品和服务对上对下都准时守诺,这表明该公司是靠得住的。 这些素质都有助于公司的关系 。如果你的公司不按照中国的规矩来,还是坚持以前的条条框框,你就会发现在中国做生意有多难搞,人家不理你不说,你能做的生意也被那些有路子的同行抢走了。
The same is true for individuals, which is why most Chinese seem to spend inordinate amounts of time and money establishing, cultivating and maintaining their guanxi networks. Needless to say, once these connections are forged, they are nurtured, treasured and even guarded, for they can last a lifetime.
关系的新角色
Guanxi starts with decency and fairness. If a company delivers their products on time – and honors its promises to the governing authorities and its workers – that firm is demonstrating “trustworthiness.” The company is reliable, dependable and can be counted on. Those qualities all enhance the firm’s guanxi.
那些对当下中国形式还有点抵触的西方人可能对这里的理解还停留在觉得中国是中央发号施令的铁板一块,但是随着国有企业的影响力的减弱,所谓“政府公关”没那么吃香了。这事很好解释,放眼望去这里到处都是干得不错的公司,它们都没从国家拿一分钱。
Companies that didn’t stick with China, that seemed to pass judgment on the country and its precepts, or that tried to push a Western agenda, very rarely experienced any kind of overt or official rebuke. Instead, these companies discovered that they’d been shuffled aside. And their chance to be a real “player” in China was gone.
随着中国的崛起,关系也得到了新的诠释。找好关系,维持好关系,对于那些外国投资者弄清未来发展趋势在哪,潜在的利润机会在哪,甚至准备充分的商业伙伴在哪都有很大帮助。在这个意义上说,这有点像是为什么你要去参加“老男人饭局“。有门路的公司在为新项目融资,抢占市场或者商业伙伴上往往占得先机。如果没关系,那么你就得等着报纸上看你的竞争对手签合同的消息,到那时候黄花菜都凉了。这毕竟和你以前知道的费尔泼赖稍有不同,当西方人遇到这事的时候,郁闷是必须的。但是你得记住,在中国,用关系不算犯规。这规矩他们用了五千年了。
Guanxi’s New Role in the “New” ChinaWesterners who are still coming to terms with modern China will likely attribute this to what they believe is Beijing’s centralized authority. As state-operated enterprises (SOEs) decline in number, so-called “government guanxi” is losing its influence. And with good reason: The growth in entrepreneurship here has created legions of companies that are no longer dependent on state sponsorship for profits.
说白了,我在亚洲工作了20多年,经验告诉我,如果你没点关系,那才是个问题。所以就扯出了下面这个问题,不管我以前是蜻蜓点水在亚洲晃荡几圈还是像您老一样在当地浸淫已久,请点拨下点如何搞关系吧?还有更绝的,你怎么慧眼识珠要和那些关系勾搭上大赚其钱的呢?好吧,我就传三个锦囊给大家,当你要投资兴业或者下海淘金的时候,你得打开看看。
As China continues its emergence as a global economic superpower, even a social norm as old and established as guanxi is finding a new role. Properly constructed guanxi relationships will help global investors identify future trends, potential profit opportunities and even the players best positioned top pursue them.
你得看准了 :你得找那些干了一阵子的企业,而且它们的管理层也都不是来历不明的泛泛之辈。 西方投资者总是有个臭毛病,喜欢一窝蜂的盯着创业。 做梦都想投资那些朝阳产业,新兴公司。 但请瞪大眼睛仔细看,在中国发展最好,最赚钱的都TM是以前的国营企业变来的,要不然就是私有化了,要不然就霸占住关系到国计民生的领域拼命捞钱。在这样的政府干预横行的领域里你要有关系,你小子不发才怪。你要是想找点小生意投资呢,你可以关注下那些有特许经营权或者其他社么有准入门槛的公司。这些公司做到这个份上,恰恰说明他们的经营者有关系。给大家举个例子吧,我最近发现有一个小公司,搞教育的,它拿到了一个许可证可以在国内搞网络教育,这个证很难搞到。
In that sense, it’s a bit like the proverbial “old-boys network.” The companies with the connections will be best positioned to capitalize on the new projects, markets or potential partnerships. The companies that lack guanxi will read about the new deals in the newspaper after they’ve been finalized.
你得有耐心:在中国,人们往往得是相处了几年比较知根知底有了信任才敢做大笔交易。我第一次到亚洲的时候,有个高管跟我讲,我们得打几次交道才能建立信任关系,他还说,这只是个开始,算不了什么。我很奇怪,他说,我们中国人见你们这种猴急的人见多了,这么急没用。我们得相互了解,坦诚相待,才能有长期信任的关系。这话我一直没忘,你也别忘。在中国挑选投资对象的时候,你可以不管那些公司公告或者IPO招股说明书,看看这公司里都是什么人,最好跟他们管事的直接谈谈,如果你够不到这些人,找人托关系也可以。重要的是看他们怎么运转的,因为一个新公司不意味着将来一定成功,特别是在中国。
With their finely tune sense of “fair play,” it’s not surprising that many Westerners will want to cry “foul” when it comes to this aspect of guanxi. But here’s the thing: In China, connections are fair play. They’re completely legal. And it’s been that way for 5,000 years.
把握它的脉搏:中国这20多年市场经济的成果取得了前所未有的巨大成果。尽管发展速度越来越块,但是只有那些对巨龙走向把脉准确的人才能在这里取得成功。这么说吧,想想这一年多来这里发生的事,再想想我们美国,你就会有点感悟。中国未雨绸缪,存了大笔钱应对经济衰退,现在用烧钱的办法扛住了全球金融危机。想想他那笔外汇储备的巨款,他还能再烧好一阵子呢。另外,中国现在是把钱投到投资领域而不是消费领域,大兴土木有助于长期经济增长,虽然这钱烧的肉疼。你看,这就是巨大的商业机会,那么你看看能不能在工商业和政府里找点关系?很显然中国的这些举措都是深思熟虑过的,那么回报呢?你能在这蛋糕上切下一块,能撑死你。
If anything, my experience in Asia over the last 20 years suggests that people without guanxi are the ones who should be worried.
再看看我们伟大的祖国,它满脑子想的事情就是借债,雪上加霜的是它还拿这些钱来创造所谓的就业机会,资助他们的那些支持者。这真是头疼医头脚疼医脚,拆东墙补西墙,最终这群孙子的信用卡会刷爆的。
So that begs the question: Absent traveling here three or four times a year and spending as much time as I have here in Asia over the past 20 years, how do you go about developing your own guanxi? Even better, how do you identify the companies with the powerful connections and the best profit potential?
中国还在它的快车道上,就像以前某个人说的,it’s who you know that counts.这简直就是中国的真实写照。
When searching out investments, look for companies or profit opportunities that manifest the following three qualities. As we’ll explain, the presence of these three qualities makes it a near certainty that guanxi connections are present, as well. Those three things to think about are:
标签:发财 中国
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2009-10-22 13:18 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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