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专四必备语法(十五)

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十五、复合句——副词性(状语)从句


副词在句中起状语作用,故如果起状语作用的部分为一个句子,那么该句便是副词性从句,也称状语从句。状语从句可细分为:时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、目的、结果、比较、方式等。

状语从句的测试重点为:考查考生对主从句之间逻辑意义关系的把握,看其是否能选择正确的从属连词。


 1.条件状语从句的常考知识点

 (1)if与unless的用法。

if和unless都是引导条件状语从句的连词,考生应尤其注意unless的用法,因为它表示反面条件,相当于ifnot“如果不”、“除非”。如:

In debating, one must correct the opponent’s facts, deny therelevance of his proof, or deny that what he presents as proof, if relevant, issufficient.

(2)复合连词as long as,so long as,as far as,on condition that,in the event that;动词及分词provided(that),providing(that),given that, suppose/supposing(that),assuming,say等引导条件状语从句。如:

You can arrive in Beijingearlier for the meeting provided you don’t mind taking the night train.

Assuming he is diligent in his studies at ordinary times, he issure to pass the test.

In the event that she has not been informed, I will tell her. (如果……)

You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far fromthe river bank. (如果……)

Suppose it rained, we would still go. (假如……)

Say it were true, what would you do about it?  (假如……)

(3)祈使句表示条件。如:Dress warmly, or else you’ll catch cold.

Talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you’ll soon discover thatthe science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research sincepenicillin was discovered.


 2.让步状语从句的常考知识点

(1)as 引导让步从句,要求用倒装结构,把强调的部分置于句首。如:

Much as he likes her, he does get irritated with her sometimes.

Humble as it may be, there is no place like home.

(2)while引导让步从句。如:

Everybody cheats a little, some psychologists say, while othersinsist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn’t cheat under anycircumstances.

(3)复合连接词for all that和分词granting/granted(that)引导让步从句。如:

Granted you have made much progress, you should not be conceited.

For all that computers can provide us with great help, theyshouldn’t be seen as substitutes for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.


 3.时间状语从句的常考知识点

(1)before表示汉语的 “只有/必须……才能”。如:

New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fullyaccepted.

(2)when引导时间从句时,如果出现在后半句,则表示“这/那时突然”。如:

I have just started back for the house to change my clothes when Iheard the voices.

(3)when it comes to 是习惯用法,意为“当谈到……时”。如:

Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, andthis is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.

(4)名词短语、介词短语each /every time, the moment/second/minute, in the time, by thetime起连词作用。如:

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we comeback next year.

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room,for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

Mercury’s velocity is so much greater than the Earth’s that itcompletes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time it takes theEarth to complete one.

(5)副词directly,immediately, instantly, now引导时间从句, 相当于as soon as。如:

The policemen went into action directly they heard the alarm.


 4.原因状语从句的常考知识点

(1)in that引导原因从句时,有时翻译成“是因为”、“就在于”。如:

Advertising is distinguished from other forms of communication inthat the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.

Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us tofind and correct our mistakes.

(2)now that表示 “既然”; seeing that, considering表示“鉴于”、“考虑到”。如:

Now that we have all the material ready, we should begin the newtask at once.

He did poorly in the examinations, considering how hard hehad tried for them.

Seeing that she is lawfully old enoughto get married, I don’t think you can stop her.

其他引导原因状语从句的连接词语还有:for the (simple) reason that, by reason that, on the grounds that, in as muchas, in so far as等。


 5.while, whereas 引导对比从句

如: While the teenagepopulation in the United States has declined over the past decade,violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased.

A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult, whereas he islikely to smile and reach out to another infant.


 6.so…that…, with the result that, so much so that 引导结果状语从句

 如: Over the years, a large number of overseas students have studiedat that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experiencein dealing with them.

He himself believed in freedom, so much so that he would ratherdie than live without it.


 7.in order that, in case, for fear that, lest (用虚拟语气)引导目的状语从句

如: Give me your telephonenumber, in case I need your help.

Helen listened carefully in order that she might discover exactlywhat John wanted.


 8.where作为连接副词的一种用法, 翻译为“在……地方”

如: In Japan, aperson’s capabilities are not forced into an inflexible specialty. Where thereis willingness and intelligence, there is a place within the company to try andto succeed.

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2012-06-15 08:02 编辑:wjy2005tom
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