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改变了美国的60年代

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小编摘要:二十世纪六十年代迎来了首位出生在本世纪的肯尼迪总统,对许多美国人来说,这位年轻的总统给美国带来了希望。但是,肯尼迪1963年遇刺身亡,这让许多人觉得那种希望也随着他死去了。

改变了美国的60年代

 


STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

Today, we tell about life in the United States during the nineteen sixties.

(MUSIC)

The nineteen sixties began with the election of the first president born in the twentieth century -- John Kennedy. For many Americans, the young president represented a spirit of hope for the nation. When Kennedy was murdered in nineteen sixty-three, many felt that their hopes died, too. This was especially true of young people, and members and supporters of minority groups.
二十世纪六十年代迎来了首位出生在本世纪的肯尼迪总统,对许多美国人来说,这位年轻的总统给美国带来了希望。但是,肯尼迪1963年遇刺身亡,这让许多人觉得那种希望也随着他死去了,这种想法在年轻人、少数族裔和少数族裔权益的支持者中尤其强烈。

A time of innocence and hope soon began to look like a time of anger and violence. More Americans protested to demand an end to the unfair treatment of black citizens. Many more protested to demand an end to the war in Vietnam. And many protested to demand full equality for women.
一个纯真和充满希望的年代很快被愤怒和暴力冲突所吞噬。更多的美国人参加抗议活动,要求结束对黑人的不公正待遇,结束越战,让妇女获得同男性完全平等的地位。

By the middle of the nineteen sixties, it had become almost impossible for President Lyndon Johnson to leave the White House without facing protesters against the war in Vietnam.
60年代中期约翰逊当美国总统时,白宫外面几乎天天都有反对越战的示威活动。

In March of nineteen sixty-eight, Johnson announced that he would not seek another term in office.
1968年3月,约翰逊宣布他不会寻求连任总统。

In addition to President Kennedy, two other influential Americans were murdered during the nineteen sixties. Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Junior was shot in Memphis, Tennessee, in nineteen sixty-eight. Several weeks later, Robert Kennedy -- John Kennedy's brother -- was shot in Los Angeles, California. He was campaigning to win his party's nomination for president.
除肯尼迪外,另外两位美国名人也在60年代被杀害。一位是民权运动领袖马丁.路德.金,他是1968年在田纳西的孟菲斯被枪杀的。另外一位是肯尼迪总统的弟弟罗伯特.肯尼迪,他在加州的洛杉矶被枪杀,当时他正参加总统大选,希望能获得民主党的提名。

The two murders resulted in riots in cities across the country. The unrest and violence affected many young Americans. The effect seemed especially bad because of the time in which they had grown up.
这两个人的遇刺导致美国全国各地的城市发生暴动。骚乱和暴力冲突影响了许多美国年轻人。这一代年轻人所处的人生阶段和历史环境让他们很难接受60年代发生的这些事情。

By the middle nineteen fifties, most of their parents had jobs that paid well. They expressed satisfaction with their lives. They taught their children what were called middle class values. These included a belief in God, hard work and service to their country.
这是因为在50年代中期时,这些年轻人的父母一代基本上都有待遇不错的工作,他们对生活感到满意,教导自己的孩子所谓中产阶级的价值观,包括相信上帝、勤奋工作、为国家服务。

Later, many young Americans began to question these beliefs. They felt that their parents' values were not enough to help them deal with the social and racial difficulties of the nineteen sixties. They rebelled by letting their hair grow long and by wearing unusual clothing. Their dissatisfaction was strongly expressed in music.
而后来的社会现实让许多美国年轻人开始质疑这些价值观。他们觉得,父母教给他们的这些想法不足以应对60年代的社会问题和种族矛盾。于是他们开始反抗,他们留长发,穿奇装异服,并通过音乐来尽情表达对生活的不满。

Rock and roll music had become very popular in America in the nineteen fifties. Some people, however, did not approve of it. They thought it was too sexual. These people disliked the rock and roll of the nineteen sixties even more. They found the words especially unpleasant.
从50年代开始,摇滚乐在美国兴起。不过,有些人并不认同这种音乐。他们觉得这种音乐里有太多关于性的内容。对这些人来说,60年代的摇滚乐就更糟糕了,歌词内容特别让人反感。

The musicians themselves thought the words were extremely important. As singer and song writer Bob Dylan said, "There would be no music without the words." Bob Dylan produced many songs of social protest. He wrote anti-war songs before the war in Vietnam became a violent issue in the United States. One was called "Blowin' in the Wind."
但音乐人自己却觉得歌词非常重要。就像著名创作歌手鲍勃.迪伦说的那样,“没有歌词,就谈不上音乐。”迪伦创作了许多反映社会抗议的歌曲,越战问题在美国引发暴力冲突前,他就写了一些反战歌曲,其中一首是"Blowin' in the Wind"─“飘荡在空中”。

(MUSIC)

In addition to songs of social protest, rock and roll music continued to be popular in America during the nineteen sixties. The most popular group, however, was not American. It was British -- the Beatles -- four rock and roll musicians from Liverpool.
除了社会抗争歌曲外,其它内容的摇滚乐也继续风靡60年代的美国。不过,最受欢迎的乐队并不是来自美国,而是来自英国利物浦的四人乐队──甲壳虫。

(MUSIC)

The Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand" went on sale in the United States at the end of nineteen sixty-three. Within five weeks, it was the biggest-selling record in the country.
他们的歌曲"I Want to Hold Your Hand" 1963年年底进入美国市场,五个礼拜后就成为销售冠军。

(MUSIC)

Other songs, including some by the Beatles, sounded more revolutionary. They spoke about drugs and sex, although not always openly.
甲壳虫乐队的其它歌曲以及其它摇滚乐队的作品具有更强的革命性。歌词或直白或隐含地涉及毒品和性。

(MUSIC: "Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds")

In the nineteen sixties, "do your own thing" became a common expression. It meant to do whatever you wanted, without feeling guilty.
在20世纪60年代,“do your own thing”成为一个时髦的说法。这个说法可以翻译成我行我素,我走我路,也就是说做自己想做的事,不用觉得有罪恶感。

(MUSIC: Jimi Hendrix at Woodstock)

Five hundred thousand young Americans did their own thing at the Woodstock music festival in nineteen sixty-nine. They gathered at a farm in New York state. They listened to musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Joan Baez, and to groups like The Who and Jefferson Airplane.
1969年,50万美国年轻人就在武德斯托克音乐节上展现了真我的风采。他们聚集在纽约州的一个农场上,聆听吉米.亨德里克斯、琼贝兹、“谁人”乐队和“杰斐逊飞机"乐队的演唱。

(MUSIC: "Volunteers"/Jefferson Airplane)

Woodstock became a symbol of the young peoples' rebellion against traditional values. Many young people called themselves hippies. Hippies believed there should be more love and personal freedom in America.
20世纪60年代,反传统的价值观在美国年轻人中流传开来,而武德斯托克音乐节成为价值观的标志性事件。许多年轻人把自己称为嬉皮士,他们坚信,美国应该有更多的爱和个人自由。

In nineteen sixty-seven, poet Allen Ginsberg helped lead a gathering of hippies in San Francisco. No one knows exactly how many people considered themselves hippies. But twenty thousand attended the gathering.
1967年,诗人艾伦.金斯堡领导了美国旧金山的嬉皮士大集会,没人知道到底有多少人把自己看成嬉皮士,不过,有两万人参加了这次聚会。

Another leader of the event was Timothy Leary.
蒂莫西.利里是这次活动的另外一名领导人。

TIMOTHY LEARY: "Now, energy comes ... "

He was a former university professor and researcher. Leary urged the crowd in San Francisco to "tune in and drop out." This meant they should use drugs and leave school or their job. One drug that was used in the nineteen sixties was lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD. LSD causes the brain to see strange, colorful images. It also can cause brain damage.
利里原本是大学教授兼研究员。他号召参加旧金山嬉皮士集会的人们都去吸毒,并且退学,辞职。在60年代,一种很流行的毒品是LSD, 它是一种迷幻剂,能让吸毒的人看到怪异,色彩缤纷的影像,同时也可能造成脑损伤。
(MUSIC: "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds")

Some people say the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" was about LSD.
一些人认为,披头士的歌曲"Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" 露西在缀满钻石的天空, 实际所指的就是LSD.

(MUSIC: "The Andy Griffith Show"/Andy Griffith)

As many Americans were listening to songs about drugs and sex, many others were watching television programs with traditional family values. These included "The Andy Griffith Show" and "The Beverly Hillbillies."
就在许多美国人听着关于毒品和性的摇滚乐时,另外很多美国人则在看着反映传统家庭价值观的电视节目,包括“安迪格里菲思秀” 和“贝弗利山人”。

At the movies, some films captured the rebellious spirit of the times. These included "The Graduate" and "Doctor Strangelove."
而在电影方面,一些影片抓住了当时人们的反叛精神,比如电影“毕业生”和“奇爱博士”。

DOCTOR STRANGELOVE (PETER SELLERS): "Deterrence is the art of producing, in the mind of the enemy, the fear to attack. And so, because of the automated and irrevocable decision-making process, which rules out human meddling, the Doomsday Machine is terrifying and simple to understand, and completely credible and convincing."
电影中的“奇爱博士”说:“所谓遏制,就是在敌人头脑中制造对袭击的恐惧。因此,由于做决定的过程是自动的,不可逆转的,不受人为干扰的,所以末日机器就很恐怖,很容易理解,并且完全具有可信度和说服力。”

GENERAL BUCK TURGIDSON (STERLING HAYDEN): "Gee, I wish we had one of them Doomsday Machines."
对此,剧中的巴克将军回答说:“老天爷,我真希望自己有台这样的机器。”

(MUSIC: "Goldfinger"/Shirley Bassey)

Others offered escape through spy adventures, like the James Bond films.
另外一些电影则通过描写间谍的传奇来让人们暂时忘掉现实,比如电影007系列。

Many Americans refused to tune in and drop out in the nineteen-sixties. They took no part in the social revolution. Instead, they continued leading normal lives of work, family, and home. Others, the activists of American society, were busy fighting for peace, and racial and social justice.
不过,二十世纪60年代,还有许多美国人拒绝吸毒和退学辞职,相反,他们不参加社会革命,而是继续正常地上班下班,过家庭生活。还有一些人是美国社会的活动人士,他们忙于为和平、种族平等和社会正义而战。

(MUSIC: "I Am Woman"/Helen Reddy)

Women's groups, for example, were seeking equality with men. They wanted the same chances as men to get a good education and a good job. They also demanded equal pay for equal work.
比如,妇女团体就在争取获得和男性的平等权利。妇女们希望获得和男性一样的机会,去获得良好的教育,找好的工作。她们还要求同工同酬。

A widely popular book on women in modern America was called "The Feminine Mystique." It was written by Betty Friedan and published in nineteen sixty-three. The idea known as the feminine mystique was the traditional idea that women have only one part to play in society. They are to have children and stay at home to raise them. In her book, Ms. Friedan urged women to establish professional lives of their own.
“女性的神话”是描述当代美国妇女状况的一本着名畅销书。它的作者是贝蒂.弗里丹,这本书在1963年出版。所谓“女性的神话”指那种认为女性在社会中只能扮演一种角色的想法,而这个角色就是生孩子,在家里照顾孩子。弗里丹在她的书中则敦促妇女们建立自己的职业生活。

In the early nineteen sixties, a committee was appointed to investigate the condition of women. It was led by Eleanor Roosevelt. She was a former first lady. The committee's findings helped lead to new rules and laws. The nineteen sixty-four Civil Rights Act guaranteed equal treatment for all groups. This included women. After the law went into effect, however, many activists said it was not being enforced. The National Organization for Women -- NOW -- was started in an effort to correct the problem.
1960年代早期,美国政府成立了一个专门调查妇女社会状况的委员会,由前第一夫人埃莉诺.罗斯福领导。这个委员会的调查结果帮助政府出台了新的法规和法律。1964年的人权法案保障了对所有社会团体的平等对待,其中包括妇女。不过,在这条法律生效后,许多活动人士说,法律并没有得到执行。为了纠正这个问题,美国成立了全国妇女组织。

The movement for women's equality was known as the women's liberation movement. Activists were called "women's libbers." They called each other "sisters." Early activists were usually rich, liberal white women. Later activists included women of all ages, women of color, rich and poor, educated and uneducated. They acted together to win recognition for the work done by all women in America.
这场争取两性平等的运动被称为妇女解放运动,参与者则被称为妇女解放运动者,她们自己则以姐妹相称。早期的妇女解放运动者大多是富有、思想开放的白人妇女。后来,不同年龄、肤色、收入状况和教育水平的女性都加入了这个运动,她们共同努力,让社会认可了美国所有女性所作出的贡献。

(MUSIC)

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2012-05-22 19:51 编辑:pliny
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