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大英帝国呼吁和平

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小编摘要:上个世纪三十年代,日益紧张的欧亚局势给美国带来了严重挑战。绝大多数美国人反对法西斯及其军事领导人控制德国、意大利、日本和其他国家的政权,但他们又不愿意采取任何行动,来阻止这一局势的发展。

大英帝国呼吁和平

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to The Making of a Nation—American history in VOA Special English.

(MUSIC)

Growing tensions in Europe and Asia created a serious conflict for Americans during the nineteen-thirties. Most Americans opposed the Fascist or military leaders gaining control in Germany, Italy, Japan, and other countries. But they were not willing to take any firm action to stop this growing movement.
上个世纪三十年代,日益紧张的欧亚局势给美国带来了严重挑战。绝大多数美国人反对法西斯及其军事领导人控制德国、意大利、日本和其他国家的政权,但他们又不愿意采取任何行动,来阻止这一局势的发展。

Americans did not want to become involved in another world war. And they called on President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and their representatives in Congress to remain neutral in world affairs.
美国人不想再次卷入另一场世界大战,他们要求富兰克林.罗斯福总统和国会议员在国际事务上保持中立。

But aggression by Germany and Japan finally would force Americans to choose between their love of democracy and their desire for peace.
然而,德国和日本的侵略行动,最终将迫使美国人在要民主,还是要和平之间做出选择。

(MUSIC)

The first challenge to America's policy of neutrality came in October nineteen thirty-five.
美国中立政策面临的第一次挑战发生在1935年10月。

(SOUND)

Troops from Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia.
当时,意大利法西斯军队入侵埃塞俄比亚。

Roosevelt did not feel neutral at all. He told his advisers, "Italy is dropping bombs on Ethiopia, and that is war." He sharply criticized the Fascist Italian leader, Benito Mussolini. Roosevelt issued an order banning Americans from sending arms to either Italy or Ethiopia. And he called on Americans not to send oil or other materials to Italy.
罗斯福总统根本不想中立。他对助手说,“意大利正在轰炸埃塞俄比亚,这是一场战争。”他强烈批评意大利法西斯领导人墨索里尼,下令禁止向意大利和埃塞俄比亚输送武器,并要求美国人不要向意大利出售石油和其他战略物资。

Roosevelt's efforts to stop the export of oil and other products did not succeed. But the efforts by the White House played an important part in leading the League of Nations to take economic actions against Italy.
罗斯福阻止向意大利出售石油和其他物资的努力并没有成功,但白宫的这一努力在国际联盟对意大利采取经济制裁方面则扮演了重要角色。

(SOUND)

Less than two years later, civil war broke out in Spain. Spanish Fascists led by General Francisco Franco tried to overthrow the democratic government in Madrid.
此后不到两年,西班牙发生内战。由弗朗西斯科.佛朗哥领导的法西斯试图推翻马德里的民主政府。

Some Americans went to join the democratic army in Spain to fight Franco. But Roosevelt and the Congress agreed that America should remain officially neutral in the conflict.
一些美国人前往西班牙,加入西班牙民主政府军,对抗佛朗哥,但罗斯福和美国国会一致同意,美国官方仍然对西班牙的冲突保持中立。

In this way, Roosevelt was meeting the wishes of the American people by avoiding war. But personally, he was deeply troubled by the events in Europe. In a letter to his ambassador in France, Roosevelt wrote, "One cannot help feeling that the whole European situation is blacker than at any time in your lifetime or mine."
这样做,罗斯福无疑是满足了美国人希望保持中立避免战争的愿望。但就他个人而言,他对欧洲局势深感忧虑。在他给美国驻法大使的一封信中写道:“我感到,欧洲局势已经到了你我这辈子最黑暗的地步。”

(MUSIC)

Another challenge to American neutrality came in Asia. Japan launched a new invasion of China in July, nineteen thirty-seven. Within one month, Japanese forces gained control of what was then called Peking, now Beijing, and Tientsin.
美国中立政策遇到的另一大挑战来自亚洲。1937年7月,日本向中国发动侵略,一个月时间里,日本就攻占了当时的北平和天津。

The United States had long supported the Nationalist forces of China. And many Americans were angry about the Japanese invasion. But Roosevelt and his administration once again refused to take strong actions against the aggression.
美国长期以来一直支持中国的国民党部队,许多美国人对日本侵华感到气愤,但罗斯福和他领导的美国政府再次拒绝对日本侵略采取有力行动。

For one thing, the American Navy was weak. There was little it could do to stop Japanese aggression thousands of miles away in Asia. And neither Roosevelt nor the Congress wanted to be first to break America's official policy of neutrality.
原因之一是当时美国的海军力量薄弱,无法阻止日本在数千英里之外的侵略行动。而且无论是罗斯福还是国会,都不想首先破坏美国的中立政策。

(MUSIC)

Franklin Roosevelt made clear in private talks with friends that he understood the serious threat to world peace created by Adolf Hitler and other Fascists. He believed that the United States could not remain neutral forever if democracy was threatened in so many countries.
富兰克林.罗斯福在与朋友私下交谈时说,他非常清楚希特勒以及其他法西斯给世界和平带来的严重威胁。他认为,如果世界上这么多国家的民主都受到威胁的话,那美国就不可能永远保持中立。

However, Roosevelt did little to educate the nation about this threat. Instead, he generally followed the wishes of the majority of people who wanted America to remain neutral.
但是罗斯福并没有把这些威胁告诉美国人,相反的,他按照大多数美国人的意愿,让美国继续中立。

Public opinion in the United States was strongly against any kind of involvement in foreign conflicts.
美国民意强烈反对美国以任何形式卷入外部冲突。

In nineteen thirty-seven, Roosevelt made an important speech calling for the world's neutral nations to protect themselves from lawless Fascist nations. But many Americans feared that Roosevelt was trying to create a new alliance. And they opposed his efforts. A public opinion survey at the time showed that less than one in three Americans was willing to change the nation's strong neutrality laws to give Roosevelt more freedom of action.
1937,罗斯福发表了一个重要演说,呼吁世界上所有保持中立的国家都要保护自己免受法西斯的侵犯。但许多美国人担心罗斯福是要组建一个新联盟,他们反对他的努力。当时一项民间调查表明,只有不到三分之一的美国人愿意改变美国的中立政策,赋予罗斯福更多采取行动的权力。

(MUSIC)

In the same year, Japanese planes sank an American gunboat in the Yangtze River in China. But few Americans showed any interest in going to war over the incident. Instead, they accepted Japanese apologies. Americans simply had no desire to fight.
同一年,日本飞机在中国的长江上炸沉了一艘美国舰艇,但是没有几个美国人愿意为此卷入战争。他们接受了日本人的道歉,原因很简单,美国人就是不想打仗。

Most Americans honestly believed that the best hope for their country was neutrality. One of the most influential supporters of neutrality was Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota. He told the New York Times in nineteen thirty-seven that there can be no objection to any action the government may take which tries to bring peace to the world. But that action, he added, must not tie the American people "into another world death march." He said: "I very much fear that we are once again being caused to feel that the call is upon America to police a world that chooses to follow insane leaders."
大多数美国人打心眼里觉得,中立才是美国最大的希望所在。在众多支持中立政策的美国人中,最有影响力的人物之一是来自北达科他州的参议员杰拉德.奈伊。1937年,他告诉《纽约时报》说,他并不反对政府采取行动保卫世界和平,但这一行动绝不能将美国人跟“另一场死亡之旅联系在一起”。他还说:“我非常担心,在这个疯狂领导人的追随者越来越多的世界里,我们会再次觉得自己有义务去充当警察,维持世界秩序。”

(MUSIC)

Adolf Hitler's Nazi forces moved into the Rhineland in nineteen thirty-six. Two years later, they invaded Austria. And then, in the following months, Hitler began making demands on the government of Czechoslovakia.
1936年,希特勒入侵莱因兰,两年后,又入侵奥地利,在随后的几个月里,希特勒开始向捷克斯洛伐克政府提出领土要求。

Britain's Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was afraid that Hitler might start a general European war if he was blocked from gaining control of Czechoslovakia. In September of nineteen thirty-eight, Chamberlain traveled to Munich to discuss the situation with the German leader. The result was that Britain agreed to a German takeover of Czechoslovakia.
英国首相张伯伦担心,如果不让希特勒获得捷克斯洛伐克领土,他就可能会在整个欧洲发动战争。1938年9月,张伯伦前往慕尼黑就捷克斯洛伐克的局势与德国领导人举行会谈,结果,英国同意了德国占领捷克斯洛伐克的要求。

Chamberlain returned to London promising "peace in our time."
张伯伦回到英国伦敦后,向国人表示“和平来临了。”

NEVILLE CHAMBERLIN: "The settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem which has now been achieved is, in my view, only the prelude to a larger settlement in which all Europe may find peace. [Crowd cheers] This morning, I had another talk with the German chancellor, Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it, as well as mine. [More cheers.] Some of you perhaps have already heard what it contains, but I would just like to read it to you. We, the German Führer and Chancellor and the British Prime Minister, have had a further meeting today, and are agreed in recognizing that the question of Anglo-German relations is of the first importance for the two countries, and for Europe. We regard the agreement signed last night, and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again."
张伯伦说:“捷克斯洛伐克问题的协议现已达成,在我看来,这只是为整个欧洲谋求和平所需要签署的更大协议的前奏。今天早晨,我又跟德国总理希特勒会谈,这份文件上有我们两人的名字。你们中有些人已经知道上面的内容了,但我还是想读一读。张伯伦读道:我们,德国总理与英国首相,今天举行了进一步会谈,我们一致同意,对于英德两国,对于整个欧洲来说,英德关系是最重要的。我们昨天晚上签署了这份协议,还有英德海军协议,这是我们两国永不交战的愿望的象征。”

The first reaction of most Americans to Chamberlain's Munich agreement was one of relief. But then, public opinion changed. Americans saw that Hitler's Germany now had control of central Europe. Japan was becoming more powerful in Asia. Chamberlain's weakness only served to show dictators that they could gain land and power through aggression and fear.
绝大多数美国人对张伯伦慕尼黑协定的第一反应是石头落地。但随后,美国民众的意见出现了改变。美国人看到,希特勒的德国现在已经控制了中欧,而日本在亚洲的力量也越来越强大。张伯伦的软弱只能显示,独裁者通过侵略和恐吓可以获取更多的土地和权力。

Roosevelt warned Americans in late nineteen thirty-eight about this Fascist threat. "There can be no peace," he said, "if another nation makes the threat of war its national policy."
1938年末,罗斯福就法西斯的威胁向美国人民发出警告说:“如果哪个国家将战争威胁做为国家政策的话,那么就没有和平可言。”

FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: "There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the threat of war. There can be no peace if national policy adopts as a deliberate instrument the dispersion all over the world of millions of helpless and persecuted wanderers with no place to lay their heads. There can be no peace if humble men and women are not free to think their own thoughts, to express their own feelings, and to worship God. There can be no peace if economic resources that ought to be devoted to social and economic reconstruction are to be diverted to an intensified competition in armaments."
富兰克林.罗斯福说:“如果一个国家刻意把战争威胁做为推行国家政策的工具的话,那么就没有和平可言;如果一个国家刻意让世界上无数人无家可归,流离失所,并以此做为推行国家政策的工具的话,那就没有和平可言;如果恭顺的百姓不能自由思考、自由表达,自由信奉上帝的话,那么就没有和平可言;如果经济资源不是用来社会和经济的重建,而是用来进行军备竞赛的话,那么就没有和平可言。”

Roosevelt and much of the American public continued to hope that the United States could stay out of foreign conflicts. But increasingly, they understood that war might come. And they began to prepare for possible hostilities.
罗斯福和大多数美国人继续希望美国能置身于国际冲突之外,但他们越来越认识到,战争可能来临,并开始为各种可能的敌对行为做准备。

Following the Munich agreement, Roosevelt requested a large increase in the defense budget. He asked Britain and France to buy arms from American manufacturers to give those companies more experience in producing weapons. And he helped bring about an agreement among nations in North and South America to join together to oppose Fascist threats to peace and security.
慕尼黑协定出现后,罗斯福要求大幅度增加国防预算。他请求英法两国向美国购买武器,以增加美国企业生产武器的经验。在罗斯福的推动下,南北美洲签署协议,联合一起共同对抗法西斯,以维护和平与安全。

Finally, Roosevelt tried to get Congress to change the neutrality laws. He wanted more freedom as president to resist Fascist aggression and help Britain, France, China, and other friendly nations.
最后,罗斯福还试图让国会改变中立法案。作为总统,他希望能有更多的权力,对抗法西斯的侵略,并帮助英国、法国、中国和其他友好国家。

Congress, however, continued to resist such changes.
然而,国会继续反对罗斯福努力推动的这些变化。

(MUSIC)

But events in early nineteen thirty-nine showed that war was on the way. Germany occupied Czechoslovakia and then Lithuania. Franco's forces took control in Spain. Italy invaded Albania. And then Hitler began making demands on Poland.
然而1939年初发生的一些事件表明,战争即将到来。德国占领了捷克斯洛伐克,接着又占领了立陶宛。佛朗哥军队控制了西班牙,意大利入侵阿尔巴尼亚。而希特勒又开始向波兰提出领土要求。

In August, Germany and the Soviet Union announced to the world that they had signed a joint defense agreement.
8月,德国和苏联对外宣布,他们签署了互不侵犯条约。

A week later, Germany attacked Poland.
一周后,德国入侵波兰。

(SOUND)

Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
两天后,英国和法国向德国宣战。

(MUSIC)

Germany's invasion of Poland, and the beginning of the war, presented a giant challenge to the United States. On the one hand, almost all Americans supported the European democracies opposing the aggression by Hitler, Mussolini, and other Fascists. But on the other hand, Americans had no desire to fight in what might be a long and bloody war.
德国入侵波兰,和战争的爆发,给美国带来了巨大挑战。一方面,几乎所有美国人都支持欧洲民主国家反对来自希特勒、墨索里尼和其他法西斯的侵略;但另一方面,美国人又打心眼里不愿意卷入一场漫长而血腥的战争。

The following months would force Americans of all political beliefs to consider this problem. It would be a final period of peace for the United States before events once again drew it into a terrible world conflict.
在接下来的几个月里,持有各种政治信仰的美国人不得不严肃考虑这一问题,这段时间是美国再次卷入可怕的世界冲突前的最后一段和平时期。

(MUSIC)

STEVE EMBER:Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at 51voa.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember inviting you to join us again next week for The Making of a Nation – American history in VOA Special English.

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2012-05-19 23:00 编辑:pliny
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