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建国史话:美国对日德意宣战

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小编摘要:1941年12月日本对珍珠港的突然袭击是现代战争史上最成功的偷袭之一。包括数艘航空母舰在内的日本军舰悄无声息地穿越西太平洋,星期日早晨,向美军位于夏威夷的重要海空军事基地珍珠港发动突然袭击。

建国史话:美国对日德意宣战

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

(MUSIC)

Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December of nineteen forty-one was one of the most successful surprise attacks in the history of modern warfare. Japanese warships, including several aircraft carriers, crossed the western Pacific to Hawaii without being seen. They launched their plannoes on a quiet Sunday morning and attacked the huge American naval and air base at Pearl Harbor.
1941年12月日本对珍珠港的突然袭击是现代战争史上最成功的偷袭之一。包括数艘航空母舰在内的日本军舰悄无声息地穿越西太平洋,星期日早晨,向美军位于夏威夷的重要海空军事基地珍珠港发动突然袭击。
(SOUND: Pearl Harbor attack)

ANNOUNCER: "We interrupt this program to bring you a special news bulletin: The Japanese have attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by air, President Roosevelt has just announced."

ANNOUNCER: "The attack apparently was made on all naval and military activities on the principal island of Oahu. A Japanese attack upon Pearl Harbor naturally would mean war."
播音员说,“我们打断本节目的正常播出,插播一条特别新闻:罗斯福总统宣布,日本向夏威夷珍珠港发动进攻。很显然,日本进攻目标是瓦胡岛上所有海军及军事设施,日本对珍珠港的进攻,自然意味着战争。”

STEVE EMBER: Many of the American sailors were asleep or at church. They were unprepared for the attack. In fact, some people outside the base thought the Japanese planes must be new types of American aircraft on training flights. The sounds of guns and bombs soon showed how wrong they were.
那时,许多美国水兵正在睡觉或礼拜,他们毫无准备。事实上,海军基地以外的一些人看到日本飞机,还以为是美国空军的训练飞行。当轰炸声响起时,大家才恍然大悟。

The Japanese planes sank or seriously damaged six powerful American battleships in just a few minutes. They killed more than three thousand sailors. They destroyed or damaged half the American airplanes in Hawaii.
在短短几分钟内,日本飞机就击沉或严重损毁了六艘美国战舰,炸死3000多名美国水兵,摧毁或严重损坏了美国在夏威夷军事基地一半的飞机。

American forces, caught by surprise, were unable to offer much of a fight. Japanese losses were very low.
日本的突然袭击,让美军措手不及,日本人员伤亡非常少。

There was so much destruction at Pearl Harbor that officials in Washington did not immediately reveal the full details to the public. They were afraid that Americans might panic if they learned the truth about the loss of so much military power.
珍珠港遭受巨大损失,华盛顿没敢将细节公诸于众,以免公众知道美国遭受如此重大的军事损失而陷入恐慌。

The following day, President Franklin Roosevelt went to Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Japan.
第二天,富兰克林.罗斯福总统前往国会,要求向日本宣战。

FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: "Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, members of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives:
富兰克林.罗斯福说:“尊敬的副总统先生、尊敬的众议院议长先生、各位参议员和众议员:

"Yesterday, December seventh, nineteen forty-one -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor, looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific ...
昨天,也就是1941年12月7日是我们的国耻日,这一天,我们美利坚合众国遭到日本海军和空军有预谋的突然袭击。美国一直与日本保持和平,还应日本政府要求,与日本政府在就维护太平洋的和平进行谈判。

"No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory...
罗斯福说:针对这次有预谋的侵略,无论需要多长时间,正直的美国人民必将取得彻底胜利。

"We will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us ...
我们不仅要尽全力保护好自己,而且还要确保这种背信弃义的行为不再危及我们的安全。

"I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December seventh, nineteen forty-one, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire."
我要求国会宣布,由于日本无端、卑鄙地发动突袭,自1941年12月7日这一天起,美国与日本处于战争状态。”

STEVE EMBER: The Senate approved President Roosevelt's request without any opposition. In the House of Representatives, only one congressman objected to the declaration of war against Japan.
参议院全票通过罗斯福的要求,众议院只有一票反对。

(MUSIC)

Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. Congress reacted by declaring war on those two countries.
三天后,德国和意大利向美国宣战,国会以向这两个国家宣战作为回应。

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor ended the long American debate over whether to become involved in the Second World War. American politicians and citizens had argued for years about whether to remain neutral or to fight to help Britain and France and other friends.
日本偷袭珍珠港结束了美国国内长期以来关于是否应当参加二战的争论。美国政界和公众多年来一直围绕保持中立还是帮助英法和其他盟友作战而争论不休。

Japan's aggressive attack at Pearl Harbor united Americans in a common desire for military victory. It made Americans willing to do whatever was necessary to win the war. And it pushed America into a kind of world leadership that its people had never known before.
日本偷袭珍珠港,促使美国人团结一致,争取军事胜利,让美国人为取得战争胜利而不惜任何代价,也把美国推向了世界领导的地位,这是美国人从未体验过的。

President Franklin Roosevelt and his advisers had to make an important decision about how to fight the war. Would the United States fight Japan first, or Germany, or both at the same time?
罗斯福和他的助手们面临一个重要决定。美国是先打日本?还是先打德国?或是同时跟日德两国开战呢?

Japan's attack had brought America into the war. And it had severely damaged American military power. But Roosevelt decided not to strike back at Japan immediately. He would use most of his forces to fight Germany.
虽说是日本的进攻把美国拖入战争,并对美国军力造成严重打击的,但罗斯福总统决定不立即对日本进行还击,而是先集中主要力量,对付德国。

There were several reasons for Roosevelt's decision. First, Germany already controlled much of Europe, as well as much of the Atlantic Ocean. Roosevelt considered this a direct threat. And he worried about possible German intervention in Latin America.
罗斯福这样决定有几方面原因:首先,德国已经控制欧洲大部分领土和大西洋的大部分海域,罗斯福认为这对美国是最直接的威胁,而且他还担心德国会干涉拉美事务。

Second, Germany was an advanced industrial nation. It had many scientists and engineers. Its factories were modern. Roosevelt was concerned that Germany might be able to develop deadly new weapons, such as an atomic bomb, if it was not stopped quickly.
其次,德国是一个发达的工业化国家,拥有大批科学家、工程师和现代化工厂。罗斯福担心,如果不尽快阻止德国,德国可能会研制出新型的致命武器,如原子弹。

Third, Britain historically was one of America's closest allies. And the British people were united and fighting for their lives against Germany. This was not true in Asia. Japan's most important opponent was China. But China's fighting forces were weak and divided, and could not offer strong opposition to the Japanese.
第三,英国长期以来一直是美国最亲密的盟友之一,英国人民正团结一致抵抗德国的进攻。而在亚洲却不然,日本的主要对手是中国,但中国的抵抗力量却很薄弱,而且处于分裂状态,无法对日本形成强有力的抵抗。

(MUSIC)

Adolf Hitler's decision to break his treaty with Soviet leader Josef Stalin and attack the Soviet Union made Roosevelt's choice final. The American leader recognized that the Germans would have to fight on two fronts: in the west against Britain and in the east against Russia.
罗斯福认识到,德国必须两条战线同时拉开:在西线对付英国,在东线对付俄罗斯。

He decided it was best to attack Germany while its forces were divided. So the United States sent most of its troops and supplies to Britain to join the fight against Germany.
罗斯福认为,德国军事力量分散时,与德国作战是最好时机。所以,美国将大部分军队和军备派往英国,与英军一起对付德国。

American military leaders hoped to attack Germany quickly by launching an attack across the English Channel. Stalin also supported this plan. Soviet forces were suffering terrible losses from the Nazi attack and wanted the British and Americans to fight the Germans on the west.
美军指挥官希望能尽快渡过英吉利海峡进攻德国。斯大林也支持这一计划。苏联的军事力量在纳粹德国进攻下损失惨重,因此希望英美在西线向德国发动进攻。

However, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and other leaders opposed launching an invasion across the English Channel too quickly. They worried that such an invasion might fail, while the Germans were still so strong. And they knew this would mean disaster.
然而,英国首相丘吉尔和其他领导人则反对立即渡过英吉利海峡进攻德国。他们担心,德军力量眼下依然十分强大,一旦进攻失败,后果将不堪设想。

For this reason, British and American forces decided instead to attack the Italian and German troops occupying North Africa.
基于这个原因,英国和美国决定先打击意大利和德国控制的北非。

British forces had been fighting the Italians and Germans in North Africa since late nineteen forty. They fought the Italians first in Egypt and Libya. British forces had successfully pushed the Italians across Libya. They killed more than ten thousand Italian troops and captured more than one hundred thirty thousand prisoners.
1940年下半年以来,英军一直在北非与意大利和德国军队作战。英军先在埃及和利比亚与意大利军队作战并取得胜利,将意大利军队赶出了利比亚,消灭了一万多意大利军队,并俘获了13万意大利战俘。

But the British success did not last long. Hitler sent one of his best commanders, General Erwin Rommel, to take command of the Italians. Rommel was brave and smart. He pushed the British back from Libya to the border with Egypt. And in a giant battle at Tobruk, he destroyed or captured more than eight hundred of Britain's nine hundred tanks.
但是英军的胜利并未持续多久。希特勒派他最优秀将领之一,埃尔温.隆美尔将军接管意大利军队。隆美尔英勇善战,把英军赶出利比亚,直到埃及边境。在托布鲁克战役中,他摧毁或俘获了英军九百辆坦克中的八百多辆。

(SOUND: Rommel's tanks)

Rommel's progress threatened Egypt and the Suez Canal. So Britain and the United States moved quickly to send more troops and supplies to stop him.
隆美尔的进攻威胁到了埃及和苏伊士运河,英国和美国因此迅速向北非增派军队和物资,设法阻止隆美尔进攻的步伐。

Slowly, British forces led by General Bernard Montgomery pushed Rommel and the Germans back to Tripoli in Libya.
慢慢地,由蒙哥马利将军领导的英军把隆美尔压回到利比亚首都的黎波里。

In November nineteen forty-two, American and British forces commanded by General Dwight Eisenhower landed in northwest Africa. They planned to attack Rommel from the west, while Montgomery attacked him from the east.
1942年11月,艾森豪威尔领导的美英联军在非洲西北部登陆,计划从西面向隆美尔发动进攻,与此同时,蒙哥马利从东线发动进攻。

But Rommel knew Eisenhower's troops had done little fighting before. So he attacked them quickly before they could launch their own attack.
但是隆美尔知道艾森豪威尔的军队没打过仗,所以在艾森豪威尔还未发起进攻前就先发制人。

A major battle took place at Kasserine Pass in western Tunisia. American forces suffered heavy losses. But in the end Rommel's attack failed. Three months later, American forces joined with Montgomery's British troops to force the Germans in North Africa to surrender.
一场主要战役在突尼斯西部的卡塞林上演。美军遭受重大损失,但最后,隆美尔的进攻以失败告终。三个月后,美军与蒙哥马利领导的英军会合,迫使北非的德军投降。

The battle of North Africa was over. The allied forces of Britain and the United States had regained control of the southern Mediterranean Sea. They could now attack Hitler's forces in Europe from the south.
北非战役结束了,英美联军重新控制了地中海南部,他们下一步准备从南面进攻位于欧洲的希特勒军队。

(SOUND)

The Allies wasted no time. They landed on the Italian island of Sicily in July of nineteen forty-three. German tanks fought back. But the British and American forces moved ahead. Soon they captured Sicily's capital, Palermo. And within weeks, they forced the German forces to leave Sicily for the Italian mainland.
盟军没有浪费时间,1943年7月他们在意大利西西里岛登陆。德国坦克发起反击,但英美联军继续前进,不久就占领了西西里岛的首府巴勒莫。几星期内,英美联军就迫使德军放弃西西里,撤回意大利内陆。

In late July, Italy's dictator, Benito Mussolini, was overthrown and placed in prison. The Germans rescued him and helped him establish a new government, protected by German troops. But still the Allies attacked.
7月下旬,意大利独裁者墨索里尼被推翻,并被关进监狱。德国把他营救出来,在德军保护下,帮他建立了新政权。但盟军继续进攻。

They crossed to the Italian mainland. The Germans fought hard. And for some time, they prevented the allied troops from breaking out of the coastal areas.
英美联军向意大利本岛推进,德军发起激烈还击,一度将盟军阻止在沿海区域。


The fighting grew bloodier. A fierce battle took place at Monte Cassino. Thousands and thousands of soldiers lost their lives. But slowly the allies advanced north through Italy. They captured Rome in June of nineteen forty-four. And they forced the Germans back into the mountains of northern Italy.
战斗进入白热化,蒙特卡西诺发生激战,成千上万士兵阵亡。但盟军慢慢在意大利向北推进。1944年6月,盟军占领了意大利首都罗马,将德军赶到了意大利北部山区。

The allies would not gain complete control of Italy until the end of the war. But they had succeeded in increasing their control of the Mediterranean and pushing back the Germans.
直到二战结束前,盟军也未完全控制意大利,但盟军成功地加强了对地中海的控制,并压制了德国的进攻。

One reason Hitler's forces were not stronger in Africa and Italy was because German armies also were fighting in Russia. That will be our story next week.
非洲和意大利的德军之所以不那么强大,一个主要原因是德国同时在与苏联作战。

(MUSIC)

Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at 51voa.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. 

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2012-05-15 22:35 编辑:pliny
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