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诺曼底登陆

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小编摘要:1944年6月5日,大批英美盟军整装待发,准备对德国占领下的法国发动进攻。这次行动原定一天前进行,但是因为暴风雨天气被迫推迟。

诺曼底登陆

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

(MUSIC)

On June fifth, nineteen forty-four, a huge Allied force waited for the order to invade German-occupied France. The invasion had been planned for the day before. But a storm forced a delay.
1944年6月5日,大批英美盟军整装待发,准备对德国占领下的法国发动进攻。这次行动原定一天前进行,但是因为暴风雨天气被迫推迟。

At three-thirty in the morning, the Allied commander, General Dwight Eisenhower, was meeting with his aides. The storm still blew outside the building.
6月5号凌晨3点半,盟军总指挥官艾森豪威尔将军召集部署开会。此时,屋外暴风雨还在继续。

General Eisenhower and the other generals were discussing whether they should attack the next day.
艾森豪威尔将军和其他将军商量,次日是否要采取行动。

A weatherman entered the room. He reported that the weather would soon improve. All eyes turned toward Eisenhower. The decision was his. His face was serious. And for a long time he was silent. Finally he spoke. "Okay," he said. "We will go."
就在这时,有人进来报告说,天气马上会出现好转。大家都把目光转向艾森豪威尔,听他最后定夺。艾森豪威尔面色凝重,长时间一言不发,最后说,“好,明天行动!”

And so the largest military invasion ever known, D-Day, took place on June sixth, nineteen-forty-four.
这就是1944年6月6号的诺曼底登陆,历史上最大规模的一次军事进攻行动。

(MUSIC)

The German leader, Adolph Hitler, had known the invasion was coming. But he did not know where the Allied force would strike.
德军领导人希特勒知道英美盟军要发动进攻,但是不知道进攻的准确地点。

Most Germans expected the Allies would attack at Calais. But they were wrong. Eisenhower planned to strike along the French coast of Normandy, across the English Channel.
大多数德国人都以为盟军会选择加莱动手,但是他们错了。艾森豪威尔将军选择了英吉利海峡对面的法国诺曼底沿岸发动进攻。

The Second World War was then almost five years old. The Germans had won the early battles and gained control of most of Europe. But in nineteen forty-two and forty-three, the Allies slowly began to gain back land from the Germans in North Africa, Italy and Russia. And now, finally, the British, American, Canadian and other Allied forces felt strong enough to attack across the English Channel.
1944年6月,第二次世界大战已经打了将近五年。德军在二战初期打了很多胜仗,掌握了欧洲大部分地区的控制权。但是1942和1943年间,盟军逐渐从德军手中夺回了北非,意大利和俄罗斯的不少土地,由英国、美国、加拿大等国组成的盟军最终做好了穿过英吉利海峡发动进攻的准备。

Eisenhower had one hundred fifty thousand men and twelve thousand planes for the attack. But most importantly, he had surprise on his side. Even after the invasion began, General Erwin Rommel and other German military leaders could not believe that the Allies had really attacked at Normandy.
艾森豪威尔将军当时手下有15万人和一万两千架战斗机。但最关键的是,他打了德军一个措手不及。进攻开始后,德国将领还是难以相信,英美盟军真的会选择诺曼底下手。

But attack they did. On the night of June fifth, thousands of Allied soldiers parachuted behind German lines. Then Allied planes began dropping bombs on German defenses. And in the morning, thousands of ships approached the beaches, carrying men and supplies.
但这确实是真的。6月5号夜晚,数以千计的盟军士兵空降进入德军防线之后,盟军战机随后开始对德军防线投掷炸弹,6月6号早上,数千艘船只带着士兵和供给物资逼近诺曼底海岸。

The battle quickly became fierce and bloody. The Germans had strong defenses. They were better protected than the Allied troops on the beaches. But the Allied soldiers had greater numbers. Slowly they moved forward on one part of the coast, then another.
战斗很快变得激烈血腥。德军顽强抵抗,他们在地形上占据优势,可以更好地保护自己,但是盟军在兵力上占据优势,逐渐在一片接着一片的海滩上向前推进。

(MUSIC)

DWIGHT EISENHOWER: "People of Western Europe: a landing was made this morning on the coast of France by troops of the Allied Expeditionary Force."

STEVE EMBER: General Dwight Eisenhower

DWIGHT EISENHOWER: "This landing is part of a concerted United Nations plan for the liberation of Europe. I have this message for all of you: Although the initial assault may not have been made in your own country, the hour of your liberation is approaching. All patriots -- men and women, young and old -- have a part to play in the achievement of final victory.
艾森豪威尔将军发表讲话说:“西欧的人民:今天早晨,盟军远征军在法国的海岸登陆,这次登陆是世界各国为解放欧洲所采取行动的一部分,我要告诉你们,尽管盟军远征军第一个解放的可能不是你的国家,但你们的解放就要来到。所有爱国者,不论男女老少,都能在取得最后胜利中发挥作用”。

"To members of resistance movements, whether led by nationals or by outside leaders, I say: Follow the instructions you have received. To patriots who are not members of organized resistance groups, I say: Continue your passive resistance, but do not needlessly endanger your lives. Wait until I give you the signal to rise and strike the enemy."
艾森豪威尔将军还说:“对那些反抗力量,不论你是在本国还有在外国人的领导之下,我要告诉你们,按照你们接到的命令去做。对那些没有参加有组织反抗的爱国者们,我要说,继续你们的消极抵抗,但不要让自己的安全受到威胁,等我们的消息,然后再奋起打击敌人”。

STEVE EMBER: The Allies continued to build up their forces in France. Within one week they brought nearly ninety thousand vehicles and six hundred-thousand men into France. And they pushed ahead.
盟军继续在法国壮大力量。短短一周内,就有近九万部军车和60万士兵抵达,继续向前推进。

Hitler was furious. He screamed at his generals for not blocking the invasion. And he ordered his troops from nearby areas to join the fight and stop the Allied force. But the Allies would not be stopped.
希特勒气急败坏,对部下歇斯底里地吼叫,指责他们无能,挡不住盟军的进攻,调遣附近的部队加入跟盟军的战斗,但是都无济于事。

(MUSIC)

In late August, the Allied forces liberated Paris from the Germans. People cheered wildly as General Charles de Gaulle and Free French troops marched into the center of the city.
八月底,盟军解放了巴黎。戴高乐将军率领自由法国部队进入巴黎市中心时,法国人民热烈欢呼。

The Allies then moved east into Belgium. They captured the port of Antwerp. This made it easier for them to send supplies and fuel to their troops.
盟军随后向东进入比利时,占领了安特卫普港口,并因此保证了为部队输送供给和燃料的通道畅通无阻。

Only when Allied troops tried to move into the Netherlands did the Germans succeed in stopping them. American forces won battles at Eindhoven and Nijmegen. But German forces defeated British "Red Devil" troops in a terrible fight at Arnhem. Germany's brief victory stopped the Allied invasion for the moment. But in less than four months, General Eisenhower and the Allied forces had regained almost all of France.
直到盟军试图进入荷兰时,才遭到德军的阻挡。美军部队在埃因霍芬和内梅亨两场战役中获得胜利,但是英国的“红色魔鬼”部队在阿纳姆一战中败给了德军,这场胜利暂时让盟军停下了进攻的步伐。但是在不到四个月的时间里,艾森豪威尔将军和盟军已经收复了法国的大部分地区。

At the same time, in nineteen forty-four, the Soviets were attacking Germany from the east. Earlier, Soviet forces had succeeded in breaking German attacks at Stalingrad, Moscow and Leningrad. Soviet forces recaptured Russian cities and farms one by one. They entered Finland, Poland, and Romania. By the end of July, Soviet soldiers were just fifteen kilometers from the Polish capital, Warsaw.
与此同时,苏联1944年也从东面对德国展开进攻。早些时候,苏军已经在斯大林格勒、莫斯科和列宁格勒打退了德军的攻势,不断收复城市和村庄,并进入芬兰、波兰和罗马尼亚。到七月底的时候,苏军距离波兰首都华沙只有15公里了。

What happened next was one of the most terrible events of the war. Moscow radio called on the people of Poland to rise up against the German occupation forces. Nearly forty thousand men in the Polish underground army listened to the call. And they attacked the Germans. The citizens of Warsaw probably could have defeated the German occupation forces if the Soviet army had helped them.
接下来发生了二战期间最可怕的事件之一。莫斯科电台呼吁波兰人奋起反抗德国侵略军,将近四万名波兰地下武装成员响应号召,对德军发动袭击。如果苏军出手相助的话,华沙人民原本是能够战胜德国侵略军的,

But Soviet leader Josef Stalin betrayed the Poles. He knew that many members of the Polish underground forces opposed Communism as much as they opposed the Germans. He feared they would block his efforts to establish a new Polish government that was friendly to Moscow.
但苏联领导人斯大林背叛了波兰人。他知道,波兰地下武装力量对共产主义跟对德国纳粹一样深恶痛绝,他担心,波兰地下武装力量会阻碍自己在波兰扶持一个亲莫斯科的新政府。

For this reason, Stalin held his forces outside Warsaw. He waited while the Germans and Poles killed each other in great numbers. The Germans finally forced the citizens of Warsaw to surrender.
出于这种考虑,斯大林在华沙城外按兵不动,眼看着德国人和波兰人互相撕杀,波兰地下武装最后被迫投降。

The real winner of the battle, however, was the Soviet Union. Both the Germans and the Poles suffered heavy losses during the fighting. The Soviet Army had little trouble taking over the city with the help of Polish Communists. And after the war, the free Polish forces were too weak to oppose a Communist government loyal to Moscow.
这次战斗的真正胜利者其实是苏联。德国和波兰双方均死伤惨重。苏联部队在波兰共产党的帮助下,不费吹灰之力就占领了华沙,二战结束后,波兰自由武装力量已经过于薄弱,无法跟亲莫斯科的共产主义政府抗衡了。

(SOUND: Adolf Hitler)

Adolf Hitler was in serious trouble. Allied forces were attacking from the west. Soviet troops were passing through Poland and moving in from the east. And at home, several German military officials tried to assassinate him. The German leader narrowly escaped death when a bomb exploded in a meeting room.
这下希特勒麻烦大了。西面有盟军进攻,东面苏军正穿过波兰,身边又有好几个德军将领试图刺杀他,有一次,一枚在会议厅里爆炸的炸弹,让他险些丧命。

But Hitler refused to surrender. Instead, he planned a surprise attack in December nineteen-forty-four. He ordered his forces to move quietly through the Ardennes Forest and attack the center of the Allied line. He hoped to break through the line, separate the Allied forces, and regain control of the war. The Germans attacked American troops tired from recent fighting in another battle. It was winter. The weather was so bad that Allied planes could not drop bombs on the German forces. The Germans quickly broke through the American line.
但是希特勒不肯投降,准备1944年12月出其不意地发动进攻。他命令部队悄悄穿过阿德雷丝丛林,对盟军防线发动袭击。他希望突破防线,重新控制战争局面。寒冬腊月,盟军部队无法对德军投掷炸弹,德军迅速突破了美军防线。

But the German success did not last long. Allied forces from nearby areas raced to the battle front to help. And good weather allowed Allied planes to begin attacking the Germans.
但是好景不长。盟军周边部队立即赶来增援,天气转好后,盟军飞机重新对德军发起打击。

The battle ended by the middle of the following month in a great defeat for Hitler and the Germans. The German army lost more than one hundred thousand men and great amounts of supplies.
这场战役最终于次月中旬以希特勒和德军战败告终。德军伤亡十万多人,还损失了不计其数的供给装备。

The end of the war in Europe was now in sight. By late February, nineteen forty-five, the Germans were forced to retreat across the Rhine River. American forces led by General Patton drove deep into the German heartland.
欧洲战争已经看到了胜利的曙光。1945年2月底,德军被迫穿过莱茵河撤退,由巴顿将军率领的美军部队直捣德国腹地。

To the east, Soviet forces also were marching into Germany. It did not take long for the American and Soviet forces to meet in victory. The war in Europe was ending.
与此同时,苏联军队也从东面直逼德国,美军和苏军没用多久就胜利会师,欧洲的战斗就要结束了。

Adolf Hitler waited until Russian troops were destroying Berlin. Bombs and shells were falling everywhere. In his underground bunker, Hitler took his own life by shooting himself in the head. Several of his closest aides also chose to die in the "Fuhrerbunker."
直到苏联部队攻入柏林,外面炸弹呼啸,弹片横飞时,希特勒才在防空洞里对脑袋开枪,结束了自己的生命,他的好几个最亲密的助手也做出了同样的选择。

(MUSIC)

One week later, the German army surrendered to Eisenhower and the Allies.
一星期后,德军向艾森豪威尔将军和盟军部队投降。

WINSTON CHURCHILL: "Yesterday morning at two forty-one a.m. at General Eisenhower's headquarters, General Jodl, the representative of the German High Command and of Grand Admiral Doenitz, the designated head of the German state, signed the act of unconditional surrender of all German land, sea and air forces in Europe to the Allied Expeditionary Forces, and simultaneously to the Soviet High Command."
当时的英国首相丘吉尔说,“昨天凌晨两点41分,在艾森豪威尔将军的总指挥部,约德尔将军,代表德国最高统帅部和被指派的德国政府首脑海军元帅邓尼茨,签署了无条件投降书,宣布德国在欧洲大陆的所有陆、海、空部队同时向盟军远征军和苏联最高司令部投降”。

STEVE EMBER: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

WINSTON CHURCHILL: "Hostilities will end officially at one minute after midnight tonight, Tuesday, the eighth of May. We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing. Today is Victory in Europe Day. Long live the cause of freedom."
丘吉尔还说,“一切敌对行动将于5月8号星期二午夜12点零一分正式结束。我们可以加以庆祝,今天是欧洲胜利日,自由万岁!”

STEVE EMBER: The defeat of Germany was cause for great celebration in Britain, the United States and other Allied nations. But two facts made the celebrations less joyful than they might have been.
打败德国,对英国、美国和其他盟国来说,确实令人欢欣鼓舞,但是却有两件事,让庆祝失去了原本应有的热烈。

(MUSIC)

One was the discovery by Allied troops of the German death camps. Only at the end of the war did most of the world learn that the Nazis had murdered millions of innocent Jews and other people.
一个是盟军发现了德国的死亡营。直到战争结束前夕,国际社会才了解到,德国纳粹杀害了数以百万计的无辜的犹太人和其他人。

The second fact was that the Pacific War had not ended. Japanese and American forces were still fighting bitterly. The war in the Pacific will be our story next week.
另一个是,此时,太平洋上的战争还在继续。日本和美国部队还在激烈地战斗。

Our program was written by David Jarmul. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at 51voa.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

标签:voa special
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2012-05-13 20:40 编辑:pliny
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