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建国史话第196期:友情协助引导二战时期的外交

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小编摘要:历史上领袖人物为共同目标而走到一起的例子数不胜数,但很少有像美国总统富兰克林.罗斯福和英国首相温斯顿.丘吉尔之间的那种深厚友谊和坚实合作。

建国史话第196期:友情协助引导二战时期的外交

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember

(MUSIC)

History is full of examples of leaders joining together to meet common goals. But rarely have two leaders worked together with as much friendship and cooperation as Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill did. Roosevelt was president of the United States; Churchill was prime minister of Britain. The two men had much in common. They were both born to wealthy families, and they were both active in politics for many years. Both leaders also shared a love of history and nature, and the sea.
历史上领袖人物为共同目标而走到一起的例子数不胜数,但很少有像美国总统富兰克林.罗斯福和英国首相温斯顿.丘吉尔之间的那种深厚友谊和坚实合作。罗斯福是美国总统,丘吉尔是英国首相,两人有很多共同点。他们都出身豪门,在政界活跃多年,而且都爱好历史、自然和大海。

Roosevelt and Churchill first met when they were lower-level officials during World War One. But neither man remembered much about that meeting. However, as they worked together during the Second World War, they came to like and trust each other.
罗斯福和丘吉尔初次见面,还是在一战期间,两人还都是级别不高的政府官员,他们对这次会面印象都很模糊。然而,通过二战期间的合作,他们开始彼此欣赏和信赖。

Roosevelt and Churchill exchanged more than one thousand seven hundred letters and messages over a period of five and a half years. They met many times, at large international gatherings and in private talks. But the closeness of their friendship might be seen best in a story told by one of Roosevelt's close advisers, Harry Hopkins.
在五年半的时间里,罗斯福和丘吉尔通了一千七百多封书信和电报,并曾在大型国际会议或是私下里多次会面。罗斯福的亲密助手之一哈里.霍普金斯讲的一个小故事最能体现出罗斯福和丘吉尔的友情。

Hopkins remembered how Churchill was visiting Roosevelt at the White House one day. Roosevelt went into Churchill's room in the morning to say hello. But the president was shocked to see Churchill coming from the bathroom with no clothes on.
霍普金斯回忆说,丘吉尔在白宫访问罗斯福。一天早上,罗斯福走进丘吉尔的卧室,问他早安,但是不巧,丘吉尔正从洗手间里走出来,身上什么也没穿。

Roosevelt immediately apologized to the British leader. But Churchill reportedly answered, "The prime minister of Great Britain has nothing to hide from the president of the United States."
罗斯福连忙道歉,据说丘吉尔当时的回答是,“英国首相在美国总统面前,没有什么需要隐藏的。”。

The United States and Great Britain were the most powerful of the nations that joined together as allies to resist Germany's Adolf Hitler and his Axis partners. In January of nineteen forty-two, twenty-six of the Allied nations signed an agreement promising to fight for the goals of peace, religious freedom, human rights and justice. The three major Allies were the United States, Britain and the Soviet Union.
美国和英国这两个强大的国家,联手抗击德国的希特勒和他的轴心国伙伴。1942年1月,26个国家联合签署协定,保证为和平、宗教自由、人权和正义而战,其中最主要的三个国家是美国、英国和苏联。

The governments in Washington and London did not always agree. For example, they disagreed about when to attack Hitler's forces in western Europe. And Churchill resisted Roosevelt's suggestions that Britain give up some of its colonies. But in general, the friendship between Roosevelt and Churchill, and between the United States and Britain, led the two nations to cooperate closely.
英美两国政府也出现过意见分歧,比如,什么时候对西欧的希特勒部队发动攻击?两国政府就持不同看法;罗斯福建议英国放弃一些殖民地,也遭到了丘吉尔的反对,但是总体上,罗斯福和丘吉尔之间的友谊,让这两个国家得以紧密合作。

This was not true with the Soviets. The Soviet Union was a communist country. It did not share the same history or political system as the United States or Britain. And the Soviet Union had its own interests to protect along its borders and in other areas.
英美两国跟苏联的关系就完全两样了。苏联是共产国家,跟英美两国没有共同历史,也没有类似的政治体系,而且苏联在边境等地区还有其他自身利益需要保护。

Relations between the Soviet Union and the western Allies were mixed. On the one hand, Hitler's invasion deep into the Soviet Union had forced Josef Stalin and other Soviet leaders to make victory over the Germans their most important goal. On the other hand, shadows of future problems could already be seen. The Soviet Union was making clear its desire to keep political control over Poland. And it was supporting communist fighters in Yugoslavia and Greece.
苏联和西方盟国之间的关系很复杂。一方面,希特勒入侵苏联让斯大林等苏联领导人不得不把打败德国做为当务之急;另一方面,日后的矛盾已能看出端倪,苏联明确表明,想要在政治上控制波兰,同时支持南斯拉夫和希腊的共产党武装。

These differences were not discussed much as the foreign ministers of Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States gathered in Moscow in nineteen forty-three. Instead, they reached several agreements, including on a plan to establish a new organization called the United Nations.
1943年,英国外交大臣、苏联外长和美国国务卿在莫斯科会面时,没有讨论这些分歧,他们求同存异,达成了包括成立联合国在内的若干项协议。

Finally, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met together for the first time. They met in Tehran in late nineteen forty-three mainly to discuss the military situation. However, the three leaders also considered political questions such as the future of Germany, eastern Europe and East Asia.
罗斯福、丘吉尔和斯大林1943年底在德黑兰首次会面,讨论当时的军事局面,但是会谈也涉及了德国、东欧和东亚等地区未来走向等政治问题。

Later, the Allies made further plans for the new United Nations. They arranged for new international economic organizations -- the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. And the Allies agreed to divide Germany into different parts after the war for a temporary period. The Soviet Union would occupy the eastern part while Britain, France and the United States would occupy the west.
后来,同盟国又进一步为联合国、世界银行和国际货币基金组织的建立制定了更详尽的计划,并同意战后短期内将德国分割成东西两个部分,东部归苏联占领,西部归英国、法国和美国控制。

Washington, London and Moscow were united during the early years of the war because of military need. They knew they must fight together to defeat their common enemy. But this unity faded as Allied troops marched toward the German border. Roosevelt continued to call on the world to wait until the last bullet was fired before deciding what would come next. But Churchill, Stalin and other leaders already were trying to shape the world that would follow the war. Now, differences between the Allies became more serious.
美国、英国和苏联在战争之初因为军事需要而联合起来,联手对付共同的敌人,但随着盟军向德国边境的进逼,这种联盟关系也开始松动。罗斯福不断呼吁国际社会,等最后一发子弹打完,再考虑下一步的行动,但是丘吉尔、斯大林等其他国家的领袖早就开始盘算战后世界格局的划分了,盟国之间的分歧日渐突出。

The most important question was Poland. Hitler's invasion of Poland in nineteen thirty-nine had started the war. Roosevelt and Churchill believed strongly that the Polish people should have the right to choose their own leaders after the war. Churchill supported a group of Polish resistance leaders who had an office in London. In nineteen forty, Polish fliers had taken part in the Battle of Britain, piloting British warplanes against the German Luftwaffe.
最重要的一个问题是波兰。二战就是由希特勒1939年入侵波兰挑起的。罗斯福和丘吉尔都坚信,波兰人民战后有权选择自己的领导人。1940年,波兰飞行员参加了不列颠之战,驾驶英国战机对付德国。

But Stalin had other ideas. He demanded that Poland's border be changed to give more land to the Soviet Union. And he refused to help the Polish resistance leaders in London. Instead, he supported a group of Polish communists and helped them establish a new government in Poland.
但是斯大林另有打算。他要求重划波兰边境,把一部分土地划给苏联,他拒绝帮助伦敦的波兰抵抗力量领袖,而是支持波兰共产武装在波兰建立了一个新政府。

Churchill visited Stalin late in nineteen forty-four. The two leaders met with Roosevelt a few months later in Yalta, on the Crimean coast. All agreed that free elections should be held quickly in Poland. And they traded ideas about the future of eastern Europe, China and other areas of the world.
丘吉尔1944年年底造访斯大林,两人几个月后又一起在苏联克里米亚半岛的雅尔塔会见了罗斯福。三人一致认为,波兰应该尽快举行自由选举,并就东欧、中国和世界其他地区的未来交换了意见。

Roosevelt was in good spirits when he reported to Congress after his return from the Yalta conference.

FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT: "I come from the Crimea conference with a firm belief that we have made a good start on the road to a world of peace. There were two main purposes in this Crimea conference. The first was to bring defeat to Germany with the greatest possible speed, and the smallest possible loss of Allied men.

"That purpose is now being carried out in great force. The German Army, and the German people, are feeling the ever-increasing might of our fighting men and of the Allied armies. Every hour gives us added pride in the heroic advance of our troops in Germany -- on German soil -- toward a meeting with the gallant Red Army.
罗斯福从雅尔塔会议回来后高兴地向国会汇报说,“克里米亚的会议让我坚信,我们在建立世界和平的道路上,已经走出了很好的一步。这次会议有两个主要目的,第一是要在尽可能减少盟军伤亡的前提下,尽快打败德国,这个目标正在实现。德国军队和德国人越来越感受到美军和盟军的强大攻势,值得骄傲的是,我们的部队每个钟头都在德国领土上推进,离着跟英勇的苏联红军会师越来越近。”

"The second purpose was to continue to build the foundation for an international accord that would bring order and security after the chaos of the war, that would give some assurance of lasting peace among the nations of the world. Toward that goal, a tremendous stride was made.
罗斯福继续说,“会议第二个主要目的是为一份国际协议打下基础,努力建立战后的国际秩序与安全,在某种程度上保证世界各国间的持久和平。会议为实现这一目标取得了巨大进展。”

Roosevelt went on to say that "the peace cannot be a completely perfect system, at first. But it can be a peace based on the idea of freedom."
他还说,“一上来,和平不可能是一个完美的体系,但将是建立在自由理念基础之上的。”

Churchill had the same high hopes. He told the British parliament after the conference that Stalin and other Soviet leaders wished to live in honorable friendship. "I also know that their word is honest," Churchill said.
雅尔塔会议后,丘吉尔也对未来抱有很高的希望。他告诉英国议会说,斯大林等苏联领导人希望保持友好关系。丘吉尔还说,“而且我知道,他们说的是实话。”

But, as history proved, Roosevelt and Churchill were wrong about the Soviets. In the months after the Yalta conference, relations between Moscow and the western democracies grew steadily worse.
然而,历史证明,罗斯福和丘吉尔对苏联的判断是错误的。雅尔塔会议后的几个月里,苏联和西方民主国家之间的关系不断恶化。

The Soviet Union moved to seize control of eastern Europe. Stalin began making strong speeches charging that Washington and London were holding secret peace negotiations with Germany. And the Soviet Union refused to discuss ways to bring democracy to Poland.
苏联采取行动,夺取了东欧的控制权,斯大林严辞指责美国和英国私下跟德国展开秘密的和平谈判,同时拒绝在波兰建立民主体制。

Churchill wrote later that he had always held the Russian people in high honor, but their shadow darkened the picture after the war. Britain and America had gone to war not just to defend the smaller countries, but also to fight for individual rights and freedoms.
丘吉尔后来写过,他对苏联人民一直十分尊重,但苏联的阴影让战后格局变得阴暗。英国和美国参加二战,不仅是为了保卫弱小的国家,也是为人权和自由而战。

Churchill went on to say that the Soviet Union had other goals. Its hold tightened on eastern Europe after the Soviet Army gained control. And Churchill said that after the long suffering and efforts of World War Two, it seemed that half of Europe had just exchanged one dictator for another.
丘吉尔说,但是苏联却另有目的。苏联军队占领东欧,加强了苏联对东欧的控制,经过二战的苦难,半个欧洲似乎只是送走了一个独裁者,迎来了另一个独裁者。

Churchill and Roosevelt agreed in secret letters that they must try to oppose the Soviet effort. But before they could act, Roosevelt died. And the world began to live through a new war -- the Cold War -- in the years to follow.
丘吉尔和罗斯福在秘密通信中都认为,他们必须要设法阻止苏联的企图,但是还没有采取具体行动,罗斯福就离开了人世,国际社会即将经历另一场战争---冷战。

Roosevelt's death, from bleeding in the brain, also ended a deep personal friendship between two world leaders.
罗斯福死于脑溢血。他的死也给他跟丘吉尔之间的深厚友谊划上了句号。

Winston Churchill later wrote about hearing the news of the death of his close friend.

"I felt as if I had been struck with a physical blow," Churchill wrote. He said he was overpowered by a sense of deep and permanent loss.
丘吉尔后来回忆起他听到罗斯福死讯时的感受时写道:“我感觉仿佛遭到一记重击。”他说自己只感到一种深切的、永久的损失。

The free world joined Churchill in mourning the loss of so strong a leader as Franklin Roosevelt. But it could not weep for long. War was giving way to peace. A new world was forming. And, as we will hear in future programs, it was a world that few people expected.
自由世界的人们跟丘吉尔一起,哀悼富兰克林.罗斯福的去世。但是不能长久地悲伤,因为整个世界正在从战争向和平转型,一个新的世界正在形成。

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2012-05-10 02:41 编辑:pliny
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