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专家要求禁止广泛使用止痛药

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小编摘要:美国政府可能将对一种普通止痛药施加新限制。服用过多的乙酰氨基酚会使肝部受损,甚至导致死亡。

Experts Urge Limits on Widely Used Pain Drug

The United States government might place new restrictions on a commonly used painkiller. Taking too much acetaminophen can cause liver damage and even death.

Last week, a group of experts advised the Food and Drug Administration that the drug needs more controls and better directions for use. Acetaminophen, also called paracetamol, is found in Tylenol, Excedrin and other products that do not require a doctor's prescription. These products are used for pain, fever, colds and sleeplessness.

Their easy availability is part of the problem. People can accidentally take too much acetaminophen if they take several medicines that all contain it.
The experts recommended reducing the largest non-prescription dose of acetaminophen from one thousand milligrams. They said that is too much. They said adults should not take more than six hundred fifty milligrams at a time. The experts also said people should take less than four thousand milligrams of acetaminophen in a single day.

Acetaminophen overdose is a leading cause of liver damage in the United States. Researchers say it resulted in fifty-six thousand emergency room visits a year during the nineteen nineties. There were almost four hundred sixty deaths a year from liver failure.

The committee was especially concerned about prescription drugs that combine acetaminophen with stronger painkillers. The experts recommended banning combination drugs like Percocet and Vicodin.

Still, the experts were divided in their votes. The agency is not required to follow the advice of its committees, but generally does.

Acetaminophen is valued as a pain and fever reducer for adults and children. It does not cause stomach problems or bleeding like aspirin, ibuprofen and some other competing drugs can.

But experts say taking even small amounts over the recommended dose can cause liver damage. Some people suffer harm from smaller amounts than others. Alcohol use with acetaminophen is especially bad for the liver.

Signs of liver injury include nausea, vomiting and a lack of energy. But these may not develop for two or three days after an overdose -- too late to prevent damage.

People should ask a health professional about drug combinations that could be harmful. And they should make sure they know what is in the medicines they take and how much of each drug is safe to take.

美国政府可能将对一种普通止痛药施加新限制。服用过多的乙酰氨基酚会使肝部受损,甚至导致死亡。

上周,一个专家组向食品和药物管理局建议,需要对药物实施更加严格的控制,并提供更好的使用指导。乙酰氨基酚也叫扑热息痛,是在羟苯基乙酰胺、Excedrin和其他药中发现的。这些药品不需要医生的指导。

问题之一是这些药品很容易得到。人们会不小心服下几种含止痛药的乙酰氨基酚而过量服用。

专家认为1000毫克是允许的最大剂量,建议减少,他们说这个剂量太大,成年人每次不得超过650毫克。专家还说,一天内摄入的乙酰氨基酚不得超过4000毫克。

在美国,过量服用乙酰氨基酚是导致肺部损害的重要原因。研究人员说,十九世纪90年代,每年56,000例急诊病历皆是由此引起。每年有460人死于肺病。

这个委员会特别关注那些将乙酰氨基酚同其他强止痛药一起服用的处方药,专家建议禁止服用Percocet和Vicodin之类的合成药。

然而,专家们在表决上观点不同。该机构不被允许遵从其委员会的建议,但是通常情况下是可以的。

人们认为乙酰氨基酚可以减缓成年人和儿童的疼痛和发烧痛苦,和那些能引起胃部不适或流血的药物(如阿司匹林、布洛芬和其他类似药物)不同。

但是专家说,服用甚至稍微超过建议的剂量也会引起肺部受损,有的人服用很少也会引发不适。同时服用乙酰氨基酚和酒对肺部的损害尤其大。

肺部受损的迹象有:反胃、呕吐和无力。但是,服用过量后不会继续恶化至两三天,这时候已经来不及阻止受损了。

人们应该就可能有害的药品处方咨询卫生专家,应该知道药物的成分及安全剂量。

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2012-04-29 20:34 编辑:pliny
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