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建国史话第209期:1960年美国总统选举

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小编摘要:艾森豪威尔总统说:“三天过后,在为国家服务半个世纪后,我将卸任,将总统的职责交给我的继任者。今晚,我将与大家告别,并最后与你们分享我的一些想法。”

建国史话第209期:1960年美国总统选举

STEVE EMBER: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.
史蒂夫·恩贝尔:欢迎来到美国之音慢速英语美国历史节目--建国史话。我是史蒂夫·恩贝尔。

DWIGHT EISENHOWER: "Three days from now, after half a century in the service of our country, I shall lay down the responsibilities of office as, in traditional and solemn ceremony, the authority of the presidency is vested in my successor. This evening, I come to you with a message of leave-taking and farewell, and to share a few final thoughts with you, my countrymen."
艾森豪威尔总统说:“三天过后,在为国家服务半个世纪后,我将卸任,将总统的职责交给我的继任者。今晚,我将与大家告别,并最后与你们分享我的一些想法。”

Dwight Eisenhower was elected president in nineteen fifty-two. The following year, the Korean War ended with an armistice, a ceasefire agreement.
艾森豪威尔1952年当选美国总统。次年,朝鲜战争交战双方达成停火协议。

During his presidency, Eisenhower began a tradition of meetings between the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union. He met with Soviet leaders Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev. These meetings may have helped reduce the threat of a nuclear war between the two countries during the Cold War.
艾森豪威尔任期内,还开始跟苏联领导人接触。他就曾与当时的苏联领导人布尔加宁和赫鲁晓夫会面。这在一定程度
上减少了冷战期间美苏两国间爆发核战争的威胁。

By nineteen sixty, Eisenhower had served two terms. The Constitution was changed to prevent presidents from being elected more than twice, after Franklin Roosevelt won four times.
1960年的时候,艾森豪威尔已经连任两届总统。罗斯福连任四届后,美国宪法得到修正,规定总统任期不得超过两届。

DWIGHT EISENHOWER: "We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts, America is today the strongest, the most influential, and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-eminence, we yet realize that America's leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment. ...
艾森豪威尔总统说:“现在,世纪中叶已经过去十年了,在这期间,世界经历了四场重大战争,我们的国家参与了其中三场。尽管经历了这些灾难,但今天的美国是世界上最强大、最有影响力、生产力最高的国家。我们为这些成就感到自豪,但是我们也知道,美国的领导力和威望并不仅仅依靠无与伦比的物质进步,国家财富和军事实力,更为重要的是我们如何用这种力量为世界和平和人类进步做出贡献。”

"Now this conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence -- economic, political, even spiritual -- is felt in every city, every statehouse, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet, we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources, and livelihood are all involved. So is the very structure of our society.
艾森豪威尔总统还说:“在美国历史上,巨大的军事存在和庞大的武器工业二者的结合是以前没有过的。每个城市,每个州议会,联邦政府的每个部门,都能感受到它的影响,不论是经济上,政治上,甚至是精神上。我们承认这种发展的必要,但我们必须同时明白这种发展可能带来的负面影响。这涉及到我们的努力、资源、生活,也涉及到我们社会的架构。”

"In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together."
艾森豪威尔总统还说:“对政府来说,我们必须避免军工复合体自觉或不自觉带来的影响。错位权力灾难性上升的可能性是存在的,而且会继续下去。我们绝不能让这二者的结合危及自由和民主进程。我们不能认为这是理所当然的。唯有谨慎而睿智的人民能将巨大的工业和军事国防技术与我们追求和平的目标和途径结合起来,唯有这样安全和自由才能共同繁荣。”

At the end of Eisenhower's first term, he was still very popular. He had suffered a heart attack, but the Republican president felt strong enough to campaign again in nineteen fifty-six.
艾森豪威尔第一届任期接近尾声时,民众支持率仍然非常高。他虽然得了一次心脏病,但觉得自己身体还够硬朗,并于1956年参选连任。

His Democratic Party opponent was Adlai Stevenson. They had been the candidates in the presidential election four years earlier. This time, Eisenhower won almost ten million more votes than Stevenson -- an even bigger victory than in nineteen fifty-two.
当时,他的民主党对手是史蒂文森,跟四年前上次大选一样。这次,艾森豪威尔以将近1千万张选票的优势胜出,比1952年大选的优势还要大。

Eisenhower's second term, however, presented problems. The Soviet Union launched the space age by putting the first satellite into orbit around Earth. Fidel Castro established a communist government in Cuba. Many white Americans were fighting the Supreme Court's decision to end racial separation in schools. And the American economy suffered a recession.
艾森豪威尔的第二个任期内出现了一些问题。苏联开启了空间时代,向太空发射了第一颗绕地卫星。卡斯特罗在古巴建立起共产党政权。很多美国白种人反对联邦最高法院做出的结束学校种族分离政策的决定。而美国经济也经历了一次衰退。

Eisenhower's popularity dropped during his second term. This would make it more difficult for the Republican Party's next candidate for president.
艾森豪威尔的支持率在第二个任期里下滑,给下一位共和党总统候选人的胜出增加了难度。

The delegates who attended the presidential nominating convention in the summer of nineteen-sixty feared that their party would lose the election in November. They had to find the strongest candidate possible. Many believed that Richard Nixon was the strongest.
1960年夏天参加共和党候选人提名大会的代表担心共和党将在11月的大选中失利。他们需要找出最有力的候选人,而他们认为这个人是理查德.尼克松。

Nixon had been a senator and a member of the House of Representatives. He had been Eisenhower's vice president for eight years. When Eisenhower suffered several serious illnesses, Nixon had a chance to show his abilities to lead the nation. He showed great strength while facing an angry crowd during a trip to South America. He also gained support when he defended the United States to Khrushchev during a trip to the Soviet Union.
尼克松曾经担任联邦参议员和众议员,在艾森豪威尔八年任期内任副总统。艾森豪威尔重病在身的时候,尼克松显示了他领导国家的能力。在对南美洲的一次访问中,面对愤怒的人群他显示了强大的领导力。访问苏联期间,他在赫鲁晓夫面前为美国辩护,也因此赢得了很多支持。

Nixon's closest opponent for the Republican nomination was Nelson Rockefeller. Rockefeller was the governor of New York state. He came from one of the richest families in America.
在共和党总统候选人提名上,尼克松最有力的对手是洛克菲勒。洛克菲勒曾任纽约州州长,出身美国最富有的家庭之一。

Richard Nixon easily won the support of the party. The delegates nominated him on the first vote. He accepted the nomination. And he called for new efforts for peace and freedom around the world.
尼克松轻松赢得共和党的支持,第一轮投票就通过了对他的提名,尼克松欣然接受,并呼吁全世界为和平和自由而努力。

The race for the Democratic nomination was much more difficult. The Democratic Party thought it would have no problem winning the presidential election. Many candidates entered the race for the nomination. One was Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota. Another was Senator John Kennedy of Massachusetts.
相比之下,民主党的提名过程就艰难多了。民主党人认为这次他们赢定了,很多候选人都参与角逐,其中包括明尼苏达州参议员汉弗莱和麻萨诸塞州参议员肯尼迪。

Humphrey had been elected to the Senate three times. He was a strong activist for civil rights and peace. Kennedy was a Navy hero in World War Two. He was handsome and only forty-three years old. He was also Roman Catholic. No Catholic had ever been elected president of the United States.
汉弗莱曾三次当选参议员。他是民权与和平活动的活跃人士。肯尼迪是二战时的海军英雄,很英俊,而且年仅43岁。他还是一名罗马天主教徒。而在美国历史上,当时还没有天主教徒担任过美国总统。

Kennedy and Humphrey began to compete in state primary elections, the first step in the nominating process. Kennedy won an important primary in Wisconsin. But voters in Protestant areas of that state did not support him. The question then became: could he win in another state, West Virginia. Most of the voters in that state were Protestant.
民主党的两位主要候选人肯尼迪和汉弗莱首先在各州初选中摆开阵势,这是候选人提名的第一步。肯尼迪赢得了关键性的威斯康星州初选的胜利,但是该州新教徒集中的选区并不支持他。那接下来的问题就是,肯尼迪能否赢得西维吉尼亚州的初选,因为那里的大多数选民都是新教徒。

On the last night of the primary campaign in West Virginia, Kennedy spoke about his religion. He said the president of the United States promises to defend the Constitution. And that, he said, includes the separation of the government from any religion or church.
西维吉尼亚州初选的前一天晚上,肯尼迪发表讲话。谈到了自己的宗教信仰。他说,美国总统保证要捍卫宪法,而这就意味着,他必须要保证政教分离。

Kennedy won a big victory in West Virginia. He then went on to win many votes in other primaries. He received the nomination on the first vote at the Democratic convention.
肯尼迪在西维吉尼亚州大获全胜。接着又赢得了其他很多州的初选。在民主党的总统提名代表大会上,第一次投票就通过了肯尼迪的总统提名。

In his acceptance speech, he said he would ask Americans to help their country and sacrifice for their country.
在接受提名的演讲中,肯尼迪说,他将呼吁美国人帮助自己的国家,为自己的国家做出牺牲。

After the party conventions, the two candidates -- Kennedy and Nixon -- began to campaign around the country. Nixon charged that Kennedy was too young to be president. He said Kennedy did not know enough about governing. Kennedy attacked the Republican record of the past eight years. He said President Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon had not done enough to bring progress to the nation.
随后,民主共和两党的候选人,肯尼迪和尼克松开始在全国竞选。尼克松指责肯尼迪太年轻,不知道如何管理国家。而肯尼迪的矛头则指向共和党八年来的执政业绩。他说,艾森豪威尔总统和尼克松副总统没有尽力给国家带来进步。

Protestant groups expressed concerns about Kennedy's religion. They wondered if he would be influenced by the pope. They wondered if the leader of the Roman Catholic Church would try to make policy for the United States. Kennedy answered by repeating his strong support for the constitutional separation of church and state.
新教徒们对肯尼迪的宗教信仰表示质疑。他们怀疑他会受教皇影响,害怕教皇会影响美国的政策制定。肯尼迪反复强调,他尊重宪法中政教分离的条款。

Public opinion surveys showed the election campaign to be very close. Then the candidates agreed to hold four debates on television.
民意调查显示双方势均力敌。两位候选人同意在电视上进行四轮辩论。

In the first debate, the candidates showed they did not differ too widely on major issues. Kennedy appeared calm and sure. But Nixon did not feel well. He appeared thin and tired. Many people who had not considered voting for Kennedy now began to change their minds. To them, he looked more presidential.
在第一轮辩论中, 两位候选人对主要议题没有太大分歧。肯尼迪冷静而充满自信。但尼克松看起来并不太好,消瘦而且疲惫。很多原本并不打算投票给肯尼迪的人改变了他们的想法。在他们看来,肯尼迪似乎更有总统风范。

Most people seemed to feel that Kennedy won the first debate. Nixon probably won the second one. And both men did about the same in the last two.
很多人认为肯尼迪赢了第一轮辩论,尼克松赢了第二轮。而在后两轮辩论中,这两名候选人不相上下。

In the fourth debate, they expressed widely different opinions about whether the United States was making progress. Kennedy believed there had been little progress under Eisenhower and Nixon.
在第四轮辩论中,他们两人对美国是否在进步这个问题上各自阐述了大相径庭的观点。肯尼迪认为,在艾森豪威尔和尼克松执政期间,美国并没有取得什么进步。

JOHN KENNEDY: "Franklin Roosevelt said in nineteen-thirty-six that that generation of Americans had a rendezvous with destiny. I believe in nineteen-sixty and sixty-one and two and three, we have a rendezvous with destiny. And I believe it incumbent upon us to be defenders of the United States and the defenders of freedom. And to do that, we must give this country leadership. And we must get America moving again."
肯尼迪说:“富兰克林.罗斯福1936年时说,当时那一代美国人与命运有约。我认为,1960年,1961年,1962年,1963年,我们也与命运有约。我认为我们有义务保卫美国,保卫自由。为了实现这个目标,这个国家必须有人领导。我们必须让美国再次前进。”

Nixon disagreed. He believed the United States had not been standing still, but there was more to be done.
尼克松不同意这个观点。他认为美国并没有原地不动,但还有很多工作要做。

RICHARD NIXON: "It is essential with the conflict that we have around the world that we not just hold our own, that we not keep just freedom for ourselves. It is essential that we extend freedom, extend it to all the world. And this means more than what we've been doing. It means keeping America even stronger militarily than she is. It means seeing that our economy moves forward even faster than it has. It means making more progress in civil rights than we have, so that we can be a splendid example for all the world to see."
尼克松说:“ 世界各地的冲突使我们不能只关注自己的发展,我们不能只让美国享受自由。我们需要把自由传播到全世界。这就意味着更多的任务。这就意味着增强美国的军事实力,这就意味着更快地发展我们的经济,这就意味着在民权方面取得更大的进步,只有这样,我们才能成为全世界效仿的榜样。”

Another issue in the nineteen sixty presidential debates was the Chinese attack on the islands of Quemoy and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait. And another was how to deal with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
1960年大选的另一个重要议题是中国对台湾海峡金门和马祖的袭击。另一个则是如何对付苏联领导人赫鲁晓夫。

After the debates, the presidential candidates campaigned around the country again. Nixon proposed that if he were elected, he would travel to Eastern Europe and meet with Khrushchev.
辩论结束后,两位候选人继续在全国各地竞选。尼克松表示,如果当选,他会访问东欧,并与赫鲁晓夫会面。

Kennedy proposed the Peace Corps, a program to send Americans to developing countries to provide technical aid and other help.
肯尼迪则提议成立志愿组织和平队,派美国人到发展中国家去,提供技术等方面的帮助。

On Election Day in November, the voters chose John Kennedy as their thirty-fifth president. His victory, however, was a close one. Almost sixty-nine million people voted. Kennedy won by fewer than one hundred twenty thousand votes. The beginning of his presidency will be our story next week.
11月的选举日上,选民们选择肯尼迪成为美国第35任总统。然而尼克松与他的差距并不大。大约有6千9百万张选票。肯尼迪以不到12万票的优势胜出。肯尼迪总统任期开始将是我们下周讲述的内容。

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2012-04-25 23:02 编辑:pliny
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