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安哥拉宪法确保总统过渡顺利进行

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小编摘要:当撰写一部宪法时细节会起到决定性作用,这是法律专家安德烈•托马斯豪森被问到关于安哥拉时的观点。托马斯豪森是南非大学外国和比较法学院的理事。他关注那些安哥拉宪法中他认为是最重要的细节:总统不再由直接投票选

 安哥拉宪法确保总统过渡顺利进行



Details can make a difference when it comes to writing a constitution . That's the opinion of legal expert André Thomashausen when asked about Angola. Thomashausen is the director of the University of South Africa's Institute of Foreign and Comparative Law.
He focuses on what he considers to be the most important detail of Angola's constitution: the president is no longer chosen by direct vote. Instead, the presidency goes to the leading candidate of the party than won the country's general elections.
"That's something original," he said. "There isn't any other constitution in the world that does it."
South Africa has a similar approach, though it provides a role for the National Assembly in the naming of the president.
For example in 2009, the African National Congress, the ANC, won the elections, and the National Assembly chose the party's leader, Jacob Zuma, to head the government.
"In constitutional law," Thomashausen explained, "the question always lies in the technicalities. Although this appears to be a ritual , it underlines the assembly's supremacy and of its deputies, that are elected by the people. And here in South Africa, the same assembly that chooses the president can also ask for his resignation with a simple majority. And that doesn't happen in Angola. Angola can only remove his president after a very complicated procedure ."
Thomashausen said technically, Angola has one of the "most modern and perfect" constitutions. Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos calls the document "genuinely national" and "original".
The document includes 244 articles including chapters about the parameters of citizens' fundamental rights as well as their social and economic rights.
Professor of Law at the University of Lisbon in Portugal Jorge Miranda says it also gives more power to the President of Angola:
"There is a contradiction in the constitution regarding the fundamental rights and the guarantee of constitutionality, and presidential rights," he said. "The way rights are limited is an important guarantee of fundamental rights. And if there isn't a limitation of the executive's power, fundamental liberties may be at risk."
According to the Angolan constitution, the president simultaneously holds executive power as the head of State, and is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He can make key government appointments including judges to the Constitutional Court or the Supreme Court and pardon or commute sentences. He is the only one who can ratify international treaties.
Thomashausen said the public should have more influence on the selection of the president and his power.
"There is a difficulty in Angola's new system," he said. "The characteristics of a presidential system are all embodied in the figure of the president, but he is not directly elected by the voters, who could have a choice."
Thomashausen said it's important for Angolans to have the ability to choose a president from one party, and a National Assembly from another.
Constitutional experts say it's an important part of the foundation of many democracies: a clear separation of power between the executive, the judiciary and the legislature.

Together, they act as a system of "checks and balances" that monitor each other's' actions, helping to keep a democracy from becoming a dictatorship.

 当撰写一部宪法时细节会起到决定性作用,这是法律专家安德烈•托马斯豪森被问到关于安哥拉时的观点。托马斯豪森是南非大学外国和比较法学院的理事。
他关注那些安哥拉宪法中他认为是最重要的细节:总统不再由直接投票选出。取而代之的是, 总统将由赢得选举的党派领导候选人出任。
“这是史无前例的,”他说道。“在这个世界上没有任何其他宪法有这样的规定。”
南非有相似的地方,虽然国民大会对于总统的任命起到了举足轻重的作用。
例如在2009年,ANC,即非洲国民大会,赢得选举,国民大会选择党的领袖雅各布•祖马领导政府。
“在宪法法规中,”托马斯豪森解释道:“现在的问题总是在于专门性。尽管似乎是一种仪式,这突显出议会的至高无上及由人民选出的代表。而在南非,同样的议会选择的总统也可以通过简单多数要求他辞职。但这不会发生在安哥拉。安哥拉要求总统下台会通过一套很复杂的程序。”
托马斯豪森称从技术方面讲、安哥拉有一套“最现代及最完美的”宪法。安哥拉总统若泽爱德华多多斯桑托斯称这个法案是“真正的国家化”和“原汁原味”。
该宪法包含244项条款,其中包括公民基本权利以及他们的社会和经济权利的章节。
葡萄牙里斯本大学的法学教授乔治•米兰达称它也给予安哥拉总统更大的权力:
“宪法关于基本权利,合宪性的保证及总统的权利存在矛盾,”他说道。“权利的限制方面是基本权利的重要保障。如果不限制执行官的能力,基本的自由可能都会存在风险。”
根据安哥拉宪法规定,总统作为国家元首同时兼执行权力,又是武装部队总司令。他能行使关键政府的任命, 包括法官,宪法法院或最高人民法院并且赦免死刑。而且他是唯一能批准国际条约的人。
托马斯豪森表示公众对于总统和其权力应该有更多的影响力。
"这是安哥拉新系统一个困难的时刻,”他说道。“总统制的特点是全部都集中体现在总统一人身上,但他不是由可以选择考虑的选民直接选举产生。”
托马斯豪森称对于安哥拉很重要的是应该有能力从一党内选择一位总统,国民大会选择另一位。
宪法专家称这是许多民主国家一个重要的组成部分:行政权力、司法和立法机构之间清楚的=分离。他们会检查并平衡这个系统,保持民主避免成为专政。

标签:voa standard
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2012-04-19 21:25 编辑:pliny
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