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非洲救助中心拯救濒危黑猩猩

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小编摘要:黑猩猩属于濒临灭绝的物种,在《保护濒危物种国际贸易公约》已经有明文规定。据估计现在仅存175000只黑猩猩,主要是在非洲西部和中部,另外一些在东非。

 非洲救助中心拯救濒危黑猩猩

It's a typical day at Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Kenya's Ol Pejeta Conservancy . Two of its 41 residents are scrapping over food, while a third looks on and yelps in protest.

Kenya is their adopted homeland, having come from traumatic situations in West and Central Africa. Many were orphaned when their parents were killed for food, were imprisoned in cages, or were part of circus or other entertainment acts. The first chimps came to Sweetwaters from Burundi in 1993, following the outbreak of civil war there.

Veterinarian George Paul, senior supervisor at Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary, said because of the abuse, many have serious behavioral problems.

"If they get distress, then they tend to more-or-less have self-inflicting behavior: either eating of feces, or hitting people with feces, or they even tend to have over-aggression within the populations," explained Paul.
The veterinarian added that Sweetwaters' goal is to rehabilitate the traumatized animals and provide them with a stimulating, stress-reducing environment that best mimics their natural environment. For instance, he said, caregivers will scatter food around the 250-acre plot rather than put it in one place.

"It may take the form of food. It may take the form of having complex, either ropes, either swings, either hammocks, sometimes also just trying to make the environment into a way that is not so obvious, so that they may not be able to utilize the whole environment, but they may be able to concentrate, so the day moves [faster]," said Paul.

Sweetwaters is one of 18 chimpanzee sanctuaries in 12 African countries caring for about 800 chimpanzees. They operate under the auspices of the U.S.-based Pan African Sanctuary Alliance, which works toward primate protection and rehabilitation.

Executive director of the Jane Goodall Institute in South Africa, David Oosthuizen, said the number one threat against chimpanzees is the bushmeat trade, where chimps and other animals are killed for food. He said the trade is being fueled by overpopulation, and the resulting competition for food is particularly intense in Cameroon,Equatorial Guinea, and Central African Republic.

Baby chimps clinging to their dead parents often become pets or end up in entertainment acts.

"We have had chimps coming in to us wearing a t-shirt and pants and a Rolex watch, having been a family pet his entire life, knows not a single thing about what it means to be a chimpanzee, to live in trees, swing around and across on his feet, make a nest in the tree," said Oosthuizen.

He said a close second in threats to the chimpanzee is massive deforestation all across the continent, wiping out their natural habitat, something he noticed while on a recent rescue mission to Central African Republic.

"The level of deforestation has been so apparent. I keep referring it to, ‘God has shaven the earth with a big razor,' because there is just no more forest left. You know, what was probably 20 or 30 years ago an absolute lush prime primate habitat has now made way to massive deforestation where the forest has just given way to smaller local towns and communities," said Oosthuizen.

Chimpanzees, classified as being an endangered species, are protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES. It is estimated that there are 175,000 chimps remaining on the continent, mostly in West and Central Africa, with some in East Africa. Ol Pejeta Conservancy quotes scientists as predicting chimpanzees will be extinct in 50 years if current rates of decline continue.

Oosthuizen said that despite the CITES agreement, an increasing number of chimpanzees are being trafficked to China and other countries, where they often end up in laboratories as research experiments.

The combination of illegal trafficking, massive deforestation, and the bushmeat trade makes it difficult for rehabilitated chimpanzees to be released back into the wild. Conservationists would rather play it safe and protect the animals from all these additional dangers.

At Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary, for instance, the animals are there for life. Paul said this is a mixed blessing.

"We are happy to have the chimps within. They do provide us with a constant, I can say, a source of joy watching them, looking at the kind of ethological similarities between them and humans," said Paul.

He said the animals at his facility play an important role as "ambassadors," educating visitors on the many dangers facing them and the importance of chimpanzee conservation.
这是在肯尼亚奥佩亚塔野生动物保护区甜水黑猩猩救助中心很特别的一天。41位居民分成了两拨正在争抢食物,而另一拨在围观,在叫喊着抗议。
肯尼亚是它们被收养的第二家园,它们在非洲西部和中部受到创伤后来到这里。由于它们的父母被当成食物杀害,许多动物沦落为孤儿,或被关进笼子里,或者其中的一部分进入马戏团被人娱乐。第一批黑猩猩在1993年从布隆迪来到甜水之后内战爆发。
甜水黑猩猩救助中心的高级主管兽医乔治•保罗称由于滥用,存在许多严重的行为问题。
“如果它们感到痛苦,它们就会有或多或少的自我施虐行为:要么进食粪便,或用粪便打人,或者甚至在同群中极具侵略性。”保罗解释道。
这位兽医补充道甜水的目标是救治受创伤的动物并提供给它们一种刺激,一些可以减轻压力的环境,以模仿它们的自然环境为最佳。例如,他称护理人员将会把食品分散在250英亩区域内,而不是放在一个地方。
“也许会用不同的方式获取食物。可能以不同的复杂形式出现,要么是绳索,要么是摆动,要么是吊床,有时也想使环境问题显得不太明显,所以,它们可能无法利用整体环境,但可以集中精力,因此可以更加适应环境。"保罗说道。
甜水是12个非洲国家中18个黑猩猩救助中心之一,这里有大约800黑猩猩受到照顾。这所设施受到关注于灵长类动物的保护和救治的美国圣潘非洲救助联盟赞助。
南非珍•古道尔研究会的执行官大卫•奥思珍称对于大猩猩的首要威胁是兽肉交易,其中黑猩猩和其他动物被当作猎物杀害。他称这种贸易正在因为人口过剩,食物激烈竞争而在喀麦隆,赤道几内亚和中非共和国非常严重。
固守着死去父母的婴儿黑猩猩往往成为宠物或最终被人娱乐。
“我们曾看到过来我们这里的黑猩猩身穿T恤、裤子,佩戴劳力士手表,在它的一生中曾经是某个家庭的宠物,它们唯一不了解的事情就是它们本身是猩猩,本应住在树上,在树丛中摇摆环荡,栖息在树上。”奥斯珍说道。
他称第二大黑猩猩的威胁是整个大陆的大规模砍伐,破坏了它们的自然栖息地,而这也引起了重视,在中非共和国刚刚开始拯救行动。
“森林砍伐的程度已经如此明显。我一直在强调,上帝用一个大剃须刀剃光了地球,因为根本森林已经所剩无几。你知道, 20至30年前的灵长类苍翠繁茂的的栖息地现在已经由于大规模砍伐森林让位给了小城镇和社区。”奥斯珍说道。
黑猩猩属于濒临灭绝的物种,在《保护濒危物种国际贸易公约》已经有明文规定。据估计现在仅存175000只黑猩猩,主要是在非洲西部和中部,另外一些在东非。奥佩亚塔野生动物保护区引用科学家预测如果目前的下降速度仍在继续,黑猩猩将会在50年内灭绝。
奥斯珍表示尽管有CITES协议,但越来越多的黑猩猩被贩卖到中国和其他国家,在那里他们最终往往被实验室进行实验研究。
非法倒卖,大量砍伐森林及兽肉交易很难使黑猩猩被释放回山野。保育人士宁愿花钱来使它们安全、保护这些动物免受所有额外的危险。
在甜水黑猩猩救助中心,例如,动物在那里生活。保罗称这是好坏参半。
“我们非常高兴黑猩猩在内。它们给我们提供一个常数,我能说的是, 看着它们真是一种快乐的源泉,能看到这种动物和人类之间的相似之处。”保罗说道。
他称动物们在他的设施中扮演重要的“大使” 角色,教育游客黑猩猩面临许多危险及保护它们的重要性。
 

标签:voa standard
5
2012-03-29 19:27 编辑:pliny
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