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抗击艾滋病斗争取得重要进展 但仍然任重而道远

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小编摘要:在7月份,世界最大规模的艾滋病大会将会在华盛顿特区召开,届时来自200个国家的大约2万名代表及2千多名记者将有望参加2012艾滋病会议。这将是自1990年以来第一次在美国举行的会议。

抗击艾滋病斗争取得重要进展 但仍然任重而道远

In July, the world's largest AIDS conference will be held in Washington, D.C. About 20 thousand delegates from 200 countries and more than two thousand journalists are expected to attend AIDS 2012. This will be the first time the event has been held in the United States since 1990. In the lead-up to the conference, the director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has given an update on the epidemic at home and abroad.
Many losses along the way
Dr. Thomas Frieden spoke at the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies.
"It's possible, I think, to forget just how bad the HIV epidemic has been. HIV has already killed in this country as many people as died in all wars since the civil war," he said.
And around the world, he said HIV/AIDS remains the biggest infectious disease challenge more than 30 years into the epidemic.
"There have been 65 million HIV infections and 30 million deaths since this epidemic started. In 2010 alone there were 2.7 million new infections and 1.8 million deaths. So the number of people infected continues to grow from 34 million and up," he said.
Most of the infections and deaths have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. In the early days, before the illness had a name, it was called slim disease, because people were wasting away.
"At the peak of the AIDS epidemic in Africa, HIV accounted for two-thirds of all adult deaths. Can you imagine what that would be like in our own village, our own community? There were communities in which the only business that was increasing was the funeral business," he said.
Frieden said he remembers trying to treat hundreds of patients in the early days of the epidemic. But there was no treatment. Things began to change around 1996 when the first antiretroviral drugs came on the scene. There was initial hope that these were a cure. But it was then realized the drugs could suppress the virus, but not kill it. However, at least in developed countries, the drugs, despite many side effects, could extend lives.
Much has changed since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The 2011 global AIDS progress report says annual incidence of HIV has fallen since 2001 in 33 countries, 22 of them in sub-Saharan Africa. And the overall number of deaths has declined since peaking at 2.2 million in 2005. However, infections and deaths are rising in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Tipping point
Nevertheless, Frieden described 2012 at a tipping point. There have been advances in vaccine research, microbicides and especially in the use of antiretroviral drugs.
He said, "We know that treatment as prevention has been documented to reduce transmission by 96 percent. This is remarkable evidence of progress. We now know that if you're on treatment not only will you live longer and healthier, but you'll be 96 percent less likely to spread HIV to others. That's a game changer."
The U.S. government has said the goal of an AIDS-free generation is within reach.
"Meaning that virtually no child will be born with HIV infection; that adults living with HIV don't progress to AIDS; that there is a rapid decline in HIV incidence; that combination prevention can turn the tide on the HIV epidemic just as combination antiretroviral treatment can turn the tide on infection in an individual," he said.
Frieden said the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has played a major role in fighting HIV/AIDS and other diseases. The CDC has worked closely with PEPFAR, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. He praises PEPFAR for getting more people on treatment at lower costs and helping strengthen healthcare systems. The goal is to get many more on antiretroviral treatment, eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, also known as vertical transmission, and get many more men circumcised to prevent HIV infection.
AIDS 2012
The 19th International AIDS Conference will be held in Washington, D.C., from July 22nd to the 27th. The conference hasn't been held in the U.S. since 1990 because a travel ban had been in effect for those who were HIV positive. The Bush and Obama administrations worked to eventually lift that ban.
Frieden does expect some protests at AIDS 2012, possibly over budget cuts as nations struggle to recover from the global recession. But he said activists have played a major role over three decades.
"If it weren't for the advocacy in HIV we would not be where we are today. Not just in HIV, but in many other diseases. The HIV advocacy community, I think, showed the way for people suffering from a wide variety of health conditions to demand better treatment, to demand faster results, to demand access to the latest information," he said.
Frieden says security in health means everyone is connected by "the air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat." He adds, "A risk anywhere is really potentially a risk everywhere."
在7月份,世界最大规模的艾滋病大会将会在华盛顿特区召开,届时来自200个国家的大约2万名代表及2千多名记者将有望参加2012艾滋病会议。这将是自1990年以来第一次在美国举行的会议。该会议的发 起者美国疾病控制和预防中心的主任将会在家门口向全世界展现这种疾病最新的情况。
在前进的道路上经历了很多挫折与艰辛。
托马斯•弗雷登博士对于华盛顿战略与国际问题研究中心这样说道:
“忘记艾滋病曾经的坏处,我想,这是可能的。艾滋病在这个国家自内战以来已经让很多人人死于这场战争。”他说道。
并且,在世界各地,他称艾滋病仍然是超过30年以来流行病中最大的传染病挑战。
“自这种流行病开始以来曾有6500万的艾滋病感染和3000万例死亡。仅在2010年就有270万新感染病例和180万例死亡。所以感染的人数还在继续增长,从3400万例起。”他说道。
大部分的感染和死亡的病例发生在撒哈拉以南的非洲地区。在早期,这种疾病还未曾被命名,它曾被称为消瘦病,因为人被慢慢消耗殆尽。
“在非洲艾滋病爆发的高峰期,艾滋病致使三分之二的成年人死亡。你能想象那将会是像在我们自己的家乡,我们自己的社区吗?而这种疾病只有一种行业获得利润,那就是丧葬业。”他说道。
弗雷登称他还记得在早期试图救治数百名患者,但是却束手无策。而在1996年当第一种抗逆转录病毒药物出现时事情开始发生转变。起初人们对此抱有希望,认为这就是治疗方法。但是后来人们发现这种 药物只能抑制病毒,而不是杀死它。但是至少在发达国家,尽管有许多副作用, 这些药物却可以延长生命。
自从艾滋病开始以来已经发生了很大的变化。2011年全球艾滋病进展报告称年发病率相比2001年以来已经下降至33个国家,而其中22个感染地区在撒哈拉以南的非洲地区。整体死亡人数相比2005年的最高 峰220万人有所下降。然而,感染和死亡人数在东欧和中亚上升。
转折点
然而,弗雷登把2012年描述成为转折点。有先进的疫苗研究、杀菌剂,尤其是在使用抗反转录病毒药物上。
他说道:“我们知道以预防作为治疗减少96%的传播。这是明显进步的表象。我们现在可以清楚的知道,如果你是处于在治疗中,不仅可以活得更长、更健康,而且我相信你会将艾滋病传播给他人的可能性 减少96%。而那是一种游戏的更换。”
美国政府已经表示无艾滋病世代的目标已经触手可及。
“这意味着携带艾滋病病毒的孩子将不会诞生,成年人感染HIV病毒将不会演变成艾滋病;艾滋病发病率将会急剧下降,混合预防可以将艾滋病流行趋势转化成就好像抗逆转录病毒可以将感染趋势转化成为 个体一样。”他说道。
弗雷登表示美国疾病控制和预防中心在在抗击艾滋病和其他疾病的斗争中发挥了重大作用。美国疾病控制和预防中心与PEPFAR,即总统艾滋病紧急救援计划紧密合作。他称后者是为了让更多的人以较低 的成本得到治疗而且帮助加强医疗保健系统。其目的是为了让更多人使用抗逆转录病毒治疗,消除母婴传播艾滋病,这也被称为垂直传播,并且让更多的男性进行割礼来预防艾滋病传染。
艾滋病2012
在7月22日至7月27日,第19届国际艾滋病会议将在华盛顿特区举行。自1990年以来,会议还没有在美国举行过,因为旅行禁令已经对那些HIV呈阳性的人实施。而布什和奥巴马政府经过努力最终把禁令撤 销。
弗雷登确实希望在艾滋病2012中有一些抗议,也许超过预算的削减,因为国家正在努力从全球经济衰退中恢复。但是他称积极分子在过去三十年内扮演了重要角色。
“要不是有这些人宣传HIV,我们将不再是处于现在所处的环境。不只是HIV,许多其他的疾病也是如此。艾滋病宣传社区,我认为,通过此方法为承受着各种各样的健康状况的患者谋求更好的待遇,谋求更快 的结果,谋求获得最新的信息。”他说道。
弗雷登称健康安全和每个人息息相关,“我们呼吸的空气,我们喝的水和我们所食用的食品。"他补充道,“任何可能风险都会成为无处不在潜在的风险。”

标签:voa standard
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2012-03-28 19:55 编辑:pliny
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