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新报告称农业带动非洲经济增长

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小编摘要:一份新的报告称非洲的农业可带动持续的全球经济增长。但是该报告又称必须首先在农业、市场和社会的发展中有更大的投资。

新报告称农业带动非洲经济增长

A new report says African agriculture can contribute to sustained global economic growth. But it says there must first be greater investment in farming, markets and social development.
The Montpellier Panel, made up of European agricultural experts, is calling for "growth with resilience " in Africa.
"If you look at African countries now you'll see that large numbers of them are growing very well. The average growth rate for the whole of Africa is about six percent. But there are many that are growing faster. And a key component of that growth is agricultural development. So that is all very good," said Sir Gordon Conway, panel chair and professor of international development at Imperial College London.
On the other hand, Conway said, there are threats to that development.
"There are some terrible pests and diseases that destroy crops virtually overnight in Africa. There are all the problems arising from global warming. There are likelihoods of increased drought, of rising temperatures and of course extreme events of major flooding or heat waves. And all of these mean that the growth by itself is not going to be enough," he said.
The Montpellier Panel is recommending a three-part strategy : resilient markets, resilient agriculture and resilient people.
"What Africa ought to look at is the potential for growth with resilience. Resilience being the capacity to cope with these threats of many kinds. And we also argue that the resilience has to be built in right from the outset. It's not something you can just sort of tag on at the end. So the future lies really with having these two components welded together – growth and resilience," said Conway.
He added resilient markets reduce food price volatility, attract more investors and encourage greater productivity for smallholder farmers. Resilient agriculture, he says,requires partnerships involving governments, the private sector and NGOs to reduce land and water degradation and increase climate smart farming techniques.
"You've got to have good, enabling environments that allow new technologies to be adopted. But most important, you need technologies that will give you the resilience and the production at the same time. Some of these can come from agro-ecology. Things like mixed cropping or micro-dosing or so on. Or they can come from new crop breeds, which will give you tolerance if not resistance to drought and flooding and so on," he said.
The Montpellier Panel describes resilient people as those "able to provide stable incomes, adequate nutrition and good health in the face of recurrent stresses and shocks."
"You need better nutrition, particularly for young children in Africa. Something like 50 percent of the children in Africa, in many countries, are stunted. And if they get better nutrition then they're more resilient to diseases," he said.
The recommendations, said Conway, will take political will to implement, both from donor governments and the African leadership. He says a growing number of African leaders are investing in agricultural. He describes Ghana as a shining example of how investments spur economic growth.
一份新的报告称非洲的农业可带动持续的全球经济增长。但是该报告又称必须首先在农业、市场和社会的发展中有更大的投资。
发布该报告的蒙彼利埃专家小组由欧洲农业专家组成,他们呼吁非洲推行“弹性增长”。
“如果现在你观察非洲国家,你会发现他们中有很大一部分增长走势良好。整个非洲的平均增长率约为百分之六。但仍有许多增长更快。增长的一个关键组成部分就是农业发展。这很好。”专家小组主席兼伦敦帝国学院国际发展教授的戈登•康威爵士这样说道。
另一方面, 康威称对于发展而言,其中也有威胁存在。
“有一些可怕的害虫和疾病几乎在一夜之间可以毁掉非洲的作物。全球变暖所带来的问题也不容小觑。更有可能增加的干旱,温度的上升及如洪灾和热浪侵袭这样的极端事件。这些意味着对增长本身来说显然不够。”他说道。
专家小组推荐三种策略:弹性市场、弹性农业和弹性人。
“非洲应该着眼于增长潜力和弹性。弹性能力可以应对这些多种威胁。同时我们也认为弹性就是要从一开始建立。这并不是什么像你能在结尾打上标签即可的事情。所以未来真的和增长和弹性这两种事物紧密联系在了。”康威博士说道。
他补充道弹性市场可以降低食品价格无常性,吸引更多的投资者,为小农鼓励更大的生产力。弹性农业,他称,需要的合作涉及政府、私人机构和非政府组织以减少土地和水源退化并增加针对气候变化的合适农业技术。
“你必须有良好的环境,以便让新技术被采纳。但最重要的是,你需要技术同时能给你带来弹性和生产。其中的一些可能来自农业生态。诸如混合种植或微处理等等。或者他们可以来自新作物品种, 如果不耐干旱和洪水等这将会带给你耐受性。”他说道。
专家小组描述弹性的人为“面对频频发生的压力和冲击仍能提供稳定收入,有足够的营养并身体健康的人。”
“你需要更好的营养,尤其是对于非洲的儿童而言。类似50%的儿童在非洲,在许多国家中都发育不良。如果他们有更好的营养,那他们就会更有效地抵御疾病。”他说道。
该建议,考恩威博士称,将通过政治意愿来实现,都是来自政府和非洲领导的捐助。他表示越来越多的非洲领导人正投资于农业。他描述加纳如何投资促进经济发展的明显例子。

标签:voa special
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2012-03-24 21:38 编辑:pliny
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