It is difficult to think of a nation as an abstract collection of people living on a patch of territory. It is easier to think of as a person. This is why we sometimes call Great Britain __1__
"Britannia" and the United States "Columbia", and think of it as stately women. We also use masculine symbols in our __2__
personification of nations. In 1712 John Arbuthont, a Scot, wrote a political satire in that the characters were supposed __3__
to be typical members of different nationalities. The Englishman was John Bull. This name, which was sufficient flattering to be __4__
adopted generally, combined the most common English first name with a last name indicated strength. John Bull is usually __5__
pictured as a partly businessman with a Union Jack on his hatband.
After the American War of Independence began in 1783, the United __6__
States was knownfor "Brother Jonathan". Jonathan was a biblical __7__
name associated with simple people from rural areas, and it seemed fitting since the United States is rural and unsophiscated, and since __8__
American considered their type of simplicity a virtue compared to __9__
the wickedness of European cities. It is possible, however, that the name was originated with President George Washington, who would __10__
often say, when faced with a hard problem, "Let us consult Brother Jonathan", referring to his secrectary, Johnathan Trumbull.