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雅思写作—议论文四种类型与结尾模版

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小编摘要:雅思写作中议论文的四种类型与结尾模版。

针对雅思议论文写作中的辩论式话题,在教学中我们通常会向学生介绍两种安排结构的方式,即单边支持和双边讨论。所谓单边支持,顾名思义就是文章的辩论从一边展开,作者的观点和理由呈现“一边倒”的形式;而双边讨论型文章的特点则是文章针对题目所提出的话题,从正反(即支持和反对)两个方面展开辩论。单边支持和双边讨论结构的文章有着各自的特点和谋篇布局的套路,不同的题目可能适合不同类型的结构。但无论是用什么样的结构,作为议论文写作,论点、论据和论证都是必不可少的,特别是论点,没有论点或论点不清的文章是绝不可能拿高分的。然而在双边讨论型文章教学中,经常会发现学生对于怎样提出观点感到非常迷惑。本文将从怎样提出“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”这个角度对于双边讨论型文章的观点设计进行简单分析。

一、何为“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”

很多雅思写作考题的提问方式都是“Do you agree or disagree?”或者“To what extent do you agree or disagree?”。很多刚刚接触雅思考试的学生甚至是老师认为对于这种提问方式无非就是yes或no两种答案,所以文章的观点也就只能是同意或者不同意了。其实,对于这类提问,也可以采用“折衷”的观点,即“partly agree,partly disagree”(部分同意,部分不同意)。但是前提是一定要在文章中从支持和反对的两方面都阐述一些理由,而且最好再提出一种“折衷”方案。例如,考题问“现在很多人用动物做试验,你同意吗?”,考生可以在文中分别讨论支持和反对动物试验的理由,最后提出动物试验既有好处也有坏处,这就是一种“折衷”观点。除此之外,作者还提出了是否能用动物来做试验主要是取决于试验是否能给人类生活带来显著的改善(比如帮助人类发明治疗Aids的药物),这就属于“折衷”方案。

二、“折衷观点”和“折衷方案”的几种形式

那么怎样提出“折衷观点”呢?“折衷方案”又有哪几种形式呢?下面笔者将对常见的几种安排折衷观点和折衷方案的形式,结合相应的考题进行总结。

1)兴利除弊

“兴利除弊”应该是一种比较简单的折衷方案,在优缺点类文章中特别常用。即在分析完考题所涉及事物的优缺点之后,在结尾段提出“优缺点都有,我们要兴利除弊”这样的折衷方案。例如以下考题:The advantages brought by the spread of English as a “global language” will outweigh the disadvantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view?

在讨论完英语作为全球性语言的利与弊之后,结尾段可以这样提出折衷观点:

To sum up, it is difficult to tell whether or not the advantages outweigh the disadvantages regarding the spread of English as a global language. What we may have to consider is how to accept this trend as positive while at the same time staying away from its drawbacks.

2)平衡发展

很多考题需要考生讨论两种观点,通常会有“discuss both views and give your own opinion”这样的提问要求。很多情况下,文中说到的两种观点表面上看来是完全相反,但其实并不矛盾,可以用“平衡发展”的思路来提出观点。例如考题:Some people think that cultural traditions may be destroyed when they are used as money-making attractions aimed at tourists. Others believe it is the only way to save these traditions. Discuss on both sides and give your opinion.

在讨论完发展旅游的必要性和保护文化传统的重要性之后,结尾段可以这样提出折衷方案:

We should find the right balance between tourism development and cultural protection and I believe the government has a very important role to play here. In my own country, for example, many tourist cities have made effective development plans to successfully attract large numbers of visitors while still preserving their distinct cultural traditions.

有时在讨论完A和B两种观点以后,可以提出类似于“同意A还是B要取决于……”这样的折衷观点,前文讲到的动物试验是否可以进行取决于试验的性质就是属于这样的方案。再比如下面这个例子:Some people think that the animals should be treated as pets; others think that animals are sources of food and clothing. What is your opinion?

在讨论完动物当宠物养的理由和动物当食物吃的理由之后,结尾段可以这样提出观点:

From my point of view, there is no absolute answer as to whether animals should be treated like pets or as sources of food and clothes. It largely depends on what kinds of animals they are. But what remains undoubted is that we should treat animals with a humane attitude and bear in mind that they are important in preserving nature’s ecological equilibrium.

(4)解决方法

很多双边讨论型文章中所讨论的两种观点其实是可以通过某种方案来“化解矛盾”的,例如这道考题:In many countries, good schools and medical facilities are available only in cities. Some people think new teachers and doctors should wok in rural areas for a few years, but others think everyone should be free to choose where they work. Discuss and give your own opinion.

在讨论完“支边”的利(缩小城乡差距)与弊(年轻人丧失自由)之后,我们可以提出这样一种解决方案:

The best solution, therefore, is not to order, but to encourage. We should instill a sense of responsibility in young people and give more incentives to those who are willing to work in difficult areas, so that we can address the problem of urban-rural disparity while respecting whatever decisions new teachers or doctors have made.
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2012-04-20 12:20 编辑:gy_mandy
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