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英语专业四级词组辨析(4)

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小编摘要:来复习下几组常见词的辨析。

在学习英语词汇中,有时同义词的辨析是很不容易的,我们一般从三方面进行区分,即:语法、语义和文体。语法主要是词性、搭配、句式等的区分;语义主要是词义的本义、引申义、比喻义和内涵和外延等的区分;文体主要是正式和非正式、褒义和贬义等的区分。

16.环境形势

(环境 形势) conditions: The location and otherfactors likely to affect it. It suggests something that has stayed the same forsome time and which affects daily life such as food, work, and houses. We arenow studying the economic conditions in the developing countries.

(形势) situation: A position or state at aparticular time, set of conditions, facts, and events having an effect on aperson, society, etc. It suggests more general matters such as governmentplanning and finance. The political situation in these countries are alwayschanging.

(环境 周围 外界) environment: The circumstances, thingsand conditions that influence you. It refers to spirit aspect, physical aspectand material aspect. We must try to beautify our environment.

(形势 情况) circumstance(s): A situation or eventaround us, a certain kind of atmosphere, the conditions that affect whathappens. in (under) the circumstances

(环境 周围事物) surrounding(s): The area andenvironment around a place or person. It indicates a very narrow condition,"physically" sometimes reflects spiritual aspect. They lived inhostile surroundings.

 

17.著名的

well-known: (infl)

famous: The most general one. widely known or honored.

(杰出的知名的) distinguished: Great,outstanding marked by excellent quality or deserved fame, used especially ofpeople who are famous for serious work in science, the arts etc. He was adistinguished writer.

(驰名的) celebrated: Famous, (substitute forrenowned) It refers objectively to sb or something that has been give acclaimor honoured with awards or prizes. She was a celebrated actress.

renowned:Highly honored and famous for something good. oftenrefers to places or things, also It suggests something that has becomelegendary or is no longer available for an objective evaluation. Edison was renowned for his inventions.

noted:Well-known and admired It often describes a moreintellectual kind of effort and accomplishment indicating an authority orexpert or their theories. Maybe it is not widely known to the general public.He was a very noted expert.

(臭名昭著) notorious: Famous for something bad. Heis notorious for his crimes.

 

18.强盗

thief: The most general one.

(强盗) robber: It suggests a directconfrontation in which the owner is forced to give up his valuables.

(行凶强劫) mugger: A person who attacks and robspeople in a street or in a lift.

burglar:A person who breaks into a house at night to stealsomething.

(歹徒 暴徒) gangster: A member of a group ofcriminals, esp. those who are armed and use guns to threaten.

(匪徒) bandit: an armed robber. It suggestsan organized group in a rural setting.

(土匪) brigand: A robber who lives by robbingtravelers in the country.

(海盗) pirate: A person who robs on the sea.

 

19.摇动,颤动

shake:The most general one. to move up and down or backand forth. It refers to persons or things.

(发抖) quiver: To tremble a little. Itsuggests a rapid but invisible vibration. His lips quivered with emotion.

(颤抖) tremble: To shake uncontrollably andslightly as from fear, cold, excitement etc. It implies uneasiness andnervousness. Her voice trembled as she began to sing.

(瞬间发抖) shiver: To tremble from fear or cold. Itsuggests a slight and rapid movement. He stood shivering in the snow.

(极度颤动) quake: to shake or tremble violently. Itsuggests a more violent and sudden change. He quaked with excitement. Anexplosion cam make the ground quake.

(抽筋般颤动) shudder: To shake uncontrollably for amovement. It suggests a more intense shaking. She shuddered at the sight of asnake.

 

20.说话谈话

(说话) speak: To use your voice to say words.

(说) say: To speak words.

(发出声音) utter: To make sound and say words.

drawl:To speak in a slow, prolonged manner.

mutter:To express displeasure with compressed lips.

rave: To talk in an angry, uncontrolled way.

gabble: To talk rapidly, making inarticulate sounds.

(谈论) remark: To mention it or comment onit.

(陈述) state: To say, express or put intowords, esp. formally.  He stated hisview.

(讲述) narrate: To tell formally in writingor speech or describe something in order with intonation. He narrated hisadventure in the forest.

(详述) relate: To tell formally in details,to give an account of. He related his experiences.

(讲演) address: To say in speech or writingto a person or group.

tell:To let people know about something.

talk:To say things to someone.

converse: To talk formally. The scholars are conversing with each other onlinguistics.

chat: To talk in a friendly, familiar, informal manner. The two friendssat in a corner and chatted.

chatter:To talk continuously rapidly about small things.The schoolgirls went along chattering.

whisper: To talk in a low voice. She whispered me not to talk so loudly.

murmur: To make a soft sound, esp. to speak or say in a quiet voice. Heoften murmurs to himself.

(闲谈) gossip: To talk about the details ofother people's actions and private lives which may not correct or proper.          That woman is very fond of gossipingabout others.

stammer:To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because ofexcitement, embarrassment.

stutter:To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because ofinherent speech defect. 

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2012-03-11 07:49 编辑:wjy2005tom
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