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英语专业四级词组辨析(3)

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小编摘要:来复习下几组常见词的辨析。

在学习英语词汇中,有时同义词的辨析是很不容易的,我们一般从三方面进行区分,即:语法、语义和文体。语法主要是词性、搭配、句式等的区分;语义主要是词义的本义、引申义、比喻义和内涵和外延等的区分;文体主要是正式和非正式、褒义和贬义等的区分。

11.错误

 (误会) mistake: A wrong thought, act. It implies carelessness.Anyone can make a mistake.

 (过错 弱点) fault:A bad point, but not of a serious moral kind. It refers to behavior andcharacter. His only fault is that he lacks ambition.

        find fault with sb / at fault

shortcoming:  weakness,failing ; It refers to failures or deficiencies in things as well as people.

           In spite of all her shortcomings Istill think she's one of the best teachers in the school.

(疏忽) error: Amistake (formal sometimes literary)  Itimplies deviation from a standard or model

The accident was caused by humanerror.

(缺点 毛病) defect: sth lacking or imperfect. Itrefers to quality.

                 The radio was returned becauseof a defect.

(失误 过失) blunder: A very stupid or unnecessarymistake. It implies ignorance.

                  This is the fatal blunder ofhis life.

 

12.图画

picture: The most general one.

(彩图) painting: pictures with color.

(绘画 图画) drawing: A picture made with a pen,pencil and crayon. Sketch, diagrams and graphs are all drawings.

(草图) sketch: A rough not detailed drawing.

(图解 图表) diagram: A drawing, figure that showsthe arrangement of something.

(曲线图) graph: A diagram in which a straightline, curved, or zigzag line shows how two sets of numbers or measurements arerelated.

(插图) illustration: A picture to go withwords of a book.

(图样 草图) draft: The first rough written form ofanything. 

(平面图) plan: A line drawing of a building asit might been seen from above.

(主视图) elevation: A flat upright side of abuilding.

(海图) chart: A map esp. a detailed map of asea area.

 

13.特别

(专门的,与众不同的) special: Different in some way from what is common, ordinary, or usual. Itstresses having a quality, character, identity, or use of its own. The tubecontains special gases.

(特别的) especial: (fml) To an usually greatdegree, exceptional; It emphasizes the importance of the things or the

                        persons mentioned; Thisis a matter of especial importance.

(个别的) particular: Relating or belonging toonly one thing or person. It stresses the distinctness of something as an

                        individual which isworth notice. In that particular case, the rule doesn't hold.(适用)

(特种的) specific: Detailed and exact, clear inmeaning and explanation, fixed, determined.(used in scientific

                        articles)  It implies a quality or characterdistinguishing a kind or a species.

                        He gave me a veryspecific instruction. There is a specific tool for each job.

(独特的) peculiar: Strange or perhapsunpleasant. It implies strangeness. He has a peculiar way of speaking.

 

14.取消消灭

(取消 解除) cancel: To give up, to declaresomething is to be effective. He has cancelled his leave of absence.(消假)

(废除 废止) abolish: To do away with. It refers topractices, social institutions. Bad customs should be abolished.

(消灭 排除) eliminate: To get rid of. We shouldeliminate the false and retain the true.

(撤消 废除) repeal: To bring to an end of theeffect of a law or an order. Some laws should be repealed.

(根除 消灭) exterminate: To destroy completely andwholly. Colonialism must be exterminated.

 

15.破碎

break: The most general one.

(压碎 压破) crush: To press together violently asto break, to destroy its shape by squeezing it. It suggests the effect of greatexternal pressure. The tree fell on top of the car and crushed it.

(打碎) smash: To break thoroughly to pieceswith a crushing sound. She dropped the plate and smashed it.

(打裂) crack: To break without separation ofparts. It suggests the breaking out across a surface. He cracked the window byleaning against it.

(破裂) burst: To break open by pressure fromwithin. The fireworks burst while they were in the air.

(砸碎 破碎) shatter: To break into pieces. Itsuggests the breaking up of a thin surface. The glass was shattered to pieces.

(撞坏) crash: To refer to the vehicle whichhits something and is badly damaged.

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2012-03-10 06:47 编辑:wjy2005tom
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