You would never hear a management consultant advise a company to create a more cutthroat environment. "You know what we need here? Fear. More backstabbing."
管理专家和明智的首席执行官都会选择协作，而非竞争。康奈尔大学工业及劳工关系学院（Human Capital Development at Cornell's Industrial and Labor Relations School）人力资本开发执行主任迈克尔·塞利诺称：“从根本上而言，协作是最佳的管理方式。”不论是否果真如此，而今大多数商界人士都认为，通力协作能带来更好的结果。
No, collaboration seems to be the word of choice for management experts and informed CEOs alike. "Collaboration is fundamentally the best approach towards management," says Michael Serino, executive director of Human Capital Development at Cornell's Industrial and Labor Relations School. Whether it's accurate or not, most people in business today tend to believe that collaborative work delivers better results.
And yet, several Fortune 500 companies foster competitive internal environments. Consulting companies and law firms are famous for this. They tend to have an "up or out" promotion model -- everybody wants to make partner, and after a certain point, people either move up to those coveted positions or they are encouraged to find employment elsewhere.
Take Goldman Sachs (GS). Every couple of years, the company promotes roughly a hundred employees to partner. It's a big deal -- those select few receive a significant raise in salary and equity in the company. But there are fewer than 500 partners out of 35,000 employees at the firm. People are weeded out on the way up, and though it's rare, they can even get de-partnered once they reach the top.
其他公司采取的一些用人措施可能会激发企业内部的竞争。众所周知，通用电气（GE）前任首席执行官杰克??韦尔奇大力支持“末位淘汰制”。通用电气的高管根据业绩对员工进行排名，一般来说，垫底的10%必须走人。百事可乐公司（PepsiCo）的员工流动率也相当高。怀亚特·杰婓高管猎头公司（Wyatt & Jaffe）总裁马克·杰婓称：“这些方法对他们来说似乎同样奏效。”他还表示，能够顺利通过排名考验的员工在今后跳槽时也会因此而增加求职的砝码
Other companies have implemented hiring practices that would seem to spur internal competition. Former GE CEO Jack Welch was known for championing a "forced ranking" system. Top GE (GE) executives would rank employees by performance, and they generally let the bottom 10% go. PepsiCo is also known for having a high churn rate among employees. "It seems to work for them," says Mark Jaffe, president of executive search firm Wyatt & Jaffe, adding that the people who survive the system carry that cachet with them when they look for other jobs.
That can help mitigate the negative effects of an up-or-out model, such as having your staff feel terrified of losing their jobs. "If you think about McKinsey, it has always been an example of 'up or out,' but 'out' is not such a bad place," Serino says. People who leave often get good offers elsewhere. He adds, "The rules of the game are very clear to everybody coming in. It's up or out, ranked performance, it's, 'go go go.'"
Still, there is a down side to the competitive environment. For one, employees who feel pitted against one another can devote valuable time and energy trying to figure out how to outshine their peers, instead of trying to figure out how to best contribute to projects, says Serino.
Also, there's strong evidence that some employees perform worse just knowing they're going to be ranked. In a controlled study of a randomized group of employees at Amazon's crowd-sourcing website Mechanical Turk, Wharton professor Iwan Barankay found that participants who knew they were ranked were generally less productive than those who didn't, and that's especially true for people who found out that they performed worse than their peers. The news didn't motivate them, they just checked out.
2012-02-23 23:38 编辑：kuaileyingyu