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2011年11月9日更新GMAT阅读机经(四)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:1857 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

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  V7 by applemay 670

  只有一段

  传统观念认为做环保知是给企业增加成本没别的好处。这种观点肯定是不对的,基于以下两个原因:

  第一,为了环保企业可能会回头审视自己的工艺流程等,发现其中可以提高效率更经济的做法

  第一,在参与环保的过程中企业可以获得一些领先于竞争的技术,流程等,特别是这些个流程技术可能是竞争对手企业再也无法追赶补上的。

  V8 by Ting2010 720

  第一段,企业总觉得在生产过程中减少废物的生产会增加成本,其实不然,这样反而会更节约资源

  第二段,这个理论是从产品瑕疵啥的(以前的一个理论)得来的,就是说,企业总觉得是产品更精细是浪费,因为要增加不必要的人力神马的,其实他们错了,在让产品更完美的同时有神马神马好处~~~

  第三段,like the product-~~~(第二段),我们怎么怎么样~~~

  Q1.opportunity cost定义,我选的possible那个啥的

  Q2.高亮第二段,作用。CE之间好犹豫,纠结死了

  V9 by balgirl 760

  1)主旨题:

  企业关于治理污染的新的观念

  (2)第3段讲述公司产品defect的作用

  是个类比

  (3)Opportunity Cost的含义

  貌似选项原文是:Possibility of Loss if not prevented

  考古by mnch

  V1【by loverwy】

  公司在污染治理上的。公司传统上 觉得治理污染会增加成本,但是呢新的发现是说其实治理污染是有助于他们的利润的。下一段举了一个例子,说几十年前,1960?或者70,(不记得),公司 觉得提高质量也会增加成本,但是后来发现之前质量没那么好的时候是因为没有充分利用资源。。所以说提高了质量反而会增加利润。最后一段没看。。。题目比较 简单,问了这个例子的作用(就是整个第二段高亮),还有问主题啊什么的。

  V2【by leetina 700】

  第一篇好像是说作者说啊,现在有的公司觉得环保的cost太高了。第二段说,这不是的,因为没有考虑到opportunity cost(有题),就是因为污染浪费掉的资源是很多的...哦,是先说到一种revolution什么的,然后好像类比了一下还是怎样==第三段 忘了。。。。(原谅我!记忆力太差!)有一道主旨题,我选的是作者通过论证支持某一观点

  V3【by greenGMATerS 750】

  公司治理环境污染的那篇,碰到的考题和狗狗上差不多,补充一个,不是潜在cost,是机会成本(opportunity cost),我选的是Possible loss blahblah的

  考古

  V1

  传统的corporate 是以identify, examine, clean up pullution waste 为主轴, 是用被动的处理方式来对待pollution 的问题; 但是近几年的新公司是采用prevention-method. 比如说增加new equipment 来减少排放或是采取close monitor的主动方式来处理pollution问题. 但是作者指出了一个新的观点(有题) 说公司可以view pollution problems as opportunity cost - pollution problem indicates inefficiency in resource allocation 和company 的运行模式. 公司可以把pollution 问题进一步的看成是公司运作方式出了问题的警讯.

  V2

  更多对于opportunity cost 的解释和给予支持. 但是观点仍然是在opportunity cost 是一个比防范, 甚至治疗, 还要更加有效的方式. 企业应该要因此去从这个角度切入来重新检视公司的 resource allocation, 无论是employee, material 或者以外的资源

  V3

  给了一些prospect, companies can be more efficient blahblahblah等等 其中的 "Can","Will" 都给了作者对于这个新方法的期望. 没题

  这个题目有:

  Q1- 此篇文章的main purpose, 我选的是类似 introduce a new concept on the pollution-prevention method

  Q2- (Opportunity Cost 第一段两字高亮) 请问Opportunity Cost 指的是为何? 我选的是to allocate resource more efficiently

  V4

  第一段和JJ差不多。

  第二段好像主要是讲如何用opportunity cost理论减少defect

  第三段说like defect, pollution也可以用opportunity cost理论来eliminate

  有一题提到第二段的作用,我好像选择一个提到类比(analogy)的方法

  opportunity cost高亮问意思我选了stop pollution before it begin; 另外的选项有possibilities loss in cost

  补充下有个问题是第二段的作用,我选的是第三段的类比

  V5

  主要说公司一直把污染看作成本,不管是采用事后弥补的还是事前预防的,但公司应该把它看作机会成本。然后举了个例子说原来质量控制也是被看作成本,提高质量就意味着增加检验和返工,后来公司意识到质量控制其实是啥东东,忘了。最后总结说污染也是同样道理云云。

  补充问题:一题问opportunity cost是什么,这题JJ上说是选to allocate resource more efficiently这个选项,可是考场上没有和resource沾边的选项,犹豫了好久,又会原文扫了几眼,最后选了stop pollution before 污染发生的那个选项。:

  那道比较有争议的opportunity cost指什么:我选的possible losses if not prevent pollution,我觉得stop pollution before it begin不对,那个是prevention method(提供者770分)

  有一题问有junction molecule的作用吧。有两个选项挺接近的。一个说improve interactive ability of two typs of molecule还有一个是conduit for information among cells. 我当时选了第一个,仔细想想的话应该是后一个吧。。大家到时候再仔细看吧

  V6

  P1: 很多company认为控制环境污染会增加不必要的cost,然后作者反驳说环境污染会带来一些潜在的cost, 然后举了几个例子(这里有一道考题问整个潜在的cost怎么解释,我选得是环境污染会在其他方面产生cost, 原文表述这个潜在的cost用了一个什么词我忘了)

  P2: 类比说defect,以前公司认为defect是不可避免的,减少defect会增加公司的cost, 但是后来发现,通过改进流程可以减少defect也不会增加cost(有一道题问这段的作用,我选得是类比那个)P3: 总结说环境污染也可以像defect一样被控制

  类似原文

  by forevercoco

  The concept of resource productivity opens up a new way of looking at both the full systems costs and the value associated with any product. Resource inefficiencies are most obvious within a company in the form of incomplete material utilization and poor process controls, which result in unnecessary waste, defects, and stored materials. But there also are many other hidden costs buried in the life cycle of the product. Packaging discarded by distributors or customers, for example, wastes resources and adds costs. Customers bear additional costs when they use products that pollute or waste energy. Resources are lost when products that contain usable materials are discarded and when customers pay --directly or indirectly -- for product disposal.

  Environmental improvement efforts have traditionally overlooked these systems costs. Instead, they have focused on pollution control through better identification, processing, and disposal of discharges or waste -- costly approaches. In recent years, more advanced companies and regulators have embraced the concept of pollution prevention, sometimes called source reduction, which uses such methods as material substitution and closed-loop processes to limit pollution before it occurs.

  But, although pollution prevention is an important step in the right direction, ultimately companies must learn to frame environmental improvement in terms of resource productivity. [1] Today managers and regulators focus on the actual costs of eliminating or treating pollution. They must shift their attention to include the opportunity costs of pollution --wasted resources, wasted effort, and diminished product value to the customer. At the level of resource productivity, environmental improvement and competitiveness come together.

  This new view of pollution as resource inefficiency evokes the quality revolution of the 1980s and its most powerful lessons. Today we have little trouble grasping the idea that innovation can improve quality while actually lowering cost.

  But as recently as fifteen years ago, managers believed there was a fixed trade-off. Improving quality was expensive because it could be achieved only through inspection and rework of the inevitable" defects that came off the line. What lay behind the old view was the assumption that both product design and production processes were fixed. As managers have rethought the quality issue, however, they have abandoned that old mind-set. Viewing defects as a sign of inefficient product and process design -- not as an inevitable byproduct of manufacturing -- was a breakthrough. Companies now strive to build quality into the entire process. The new mind-set unleashed the power of innovation to relax or eliminate what companies had previously accepted as fixed trade-offs.

  第二段用defect做类比Like defects, pollution often reveals flaws in the product design or production process. Efforts to eliminate pollution can therefore follow the same basic principles widely used in quality programs: Use inputs more efficiently, eliminate the need for hazardous, hard-to-handle materials, and eliminate unneeded activities. In a recent study of major process changes at ten manufacturers of printed circuit boards, for example, pollution-control personnel initiated thirteen of thirty-three major changes. Of the thirteen changes, twelve resulted in cost reduction, eight in quality improvements, and five in extension of production capabilities. [2] It is not surprising that total quality management (TQM) has become a source of ideas for pollution reduction that can create offsetting benefits. The Dow Chemical Company, for example, explicitly identified the link between quality improvement and environmental performance by using statistical-process control to reduce the variance in processes and to lower waste.

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2012-02-14 18:46 编辑:cwf1986
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