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英国概况--5

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第五章

The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1688-1990)

大英帝国的兴衰

I. Whigs and Tories

辉格党人和托利党人

These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688).

这两个政党名称皆起源于1688年的光荣革命。

The Whig were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party.

辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权,支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在19世纪中叶与持不同意见的托利党人组盟组成自由党。

The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party.

托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。

I. Agricultural Changes in the Late 18th Century

18世纪末的农业革命

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the "open-field" system ended when the Enclosure Act was passed. The movement lasted for centuries. Agricultural enclosure had good as well as bad results:

18世纪末、19世纪初的农业革命期间,随着《圈地法》的颁布,传统的"开放田地"制结束。圈地运动持续了将近一个多世纪。农业圈地运动的利弊共存:

(1) Farms became bigger and bigger units as the great bought up the small;

由于大农场兼并了小农场,农场成为越来越在的生产单位;

(2) More vegetables, more milk and more dairy produce were consumed, and diet became more varied;

人们消费的蔬菜,牛奶及奶制品越来越多,饮食种类愈加丰富;

(3) Enclosure was a disaster for the tenants evicted from their lands by the enclosures. These peasant farmers were forced to look for work in towns. Enclosure led to mass emigration, particularly to the New World;

圈地对佃家而言是场灾难,他们被赶出土地,被迫到城镇找工作。圈地运动导致了大规模的移民,尤其是移民至新大陆。

(4) A new class hostility was introduced into rural relationships.

农村关系中产生了新的阶级对立。

II. The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830)

工业革命(1780-1830)

1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanisation of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

工业革命指的是17世纪末、18世纪初英国工业的机械化,以及因此而导致的社会结构和经济结构的变化。

2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors:

英国成为第一个工业化的国家,原因如下:

(1) Favourable geopraphical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade;

优越的地理位置:英国地理位置优越,适合参与欧洲与世界贸易;

(2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industralization.

政治局面稳定。17世纪后的英国社会宁静,对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商人和城市银行家带来财富,他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。

(3) Good foundation in economy. The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence over Government policy.

1688年光荣革命限制了君主的权力,这使得强大的经济利益集团能对议会政策施加影响。

(4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products.

英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流,货物运送便利。

(5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources.

英国许多河流不仅用于交通,还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。

(6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen.

英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。

(7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems.

发明家受人尊重,他们解决了实际难题。

(8) Probably laissez faire and "Protestant work ethic" helped.

很可能利益于"放手干"及"新教工作道德"。

(9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers.

1707年后,英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成关税联盟,1807年后爱尔兰加入。因此,全国市场不再受阴于内部的关税障碍。

(10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labour for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry.

圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食,为工厂提供了劳动力,为工业提供了所需的一些原材料。

3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution

工业革命中一些重大创新

(1) John Kay's flying shuttle in 1733;

1733年,约翰凯的飞梭;

(2) James Hargreaves' Spinning Jenny in 1766;

1766年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机;

(3) Richard Arkwright's waterframe in 1769;

1769年理查德阿克赖特的水力纺织机;

(4) Samuel Crompton's mule in 1779

1779年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机;

(5) Edmund Cartwright's power loom in 1784;

1784年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机;

(6) James Watt's steam engine in 1765.

1765年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。

4.Consequences of the industrial Revolution

工业革命的结果

(1) Britain was by 1830 the "workshop of the world";

英国成为了"世界工场";

(2) Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation's wealth.

城镇迅速兴起,成为国家财富的源泉。

(3) Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it . The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions.

机械化摧毁了不能投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在可怕的条件下劳动与生活。

(4) The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism.

工业革命产生了工人阶级,即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。

III. The Chartist Movement (1836-1848)

宪章运动(1836-1848)

1. Reasons for parliamentary reforms.

议会改革的原因

(1) Power was monopolized by the aristocrats.

权力由贵族操纵。

(2) Representation of town and country, and North and South was unfair.

城镇和农村,北方和南方的代表权极不平等。

(3) There were also various so-called rotten or pocket boroughs.

还有各种称之为衰败或口袋选区的选区。

2.Three Reform Bills

三个改革法案

Between 1832 and 1884 three Reform Bills were passed.

1832年至1884年间通过了三个改革法案。

a) The Reform Act of 1832 (also called the "Greater Charter of 1832) abolished "rotten boroughs", and redistributed parliamentary seats more fairly among the growing tows. It also gave the vote to many householders and tenant's, based on the value of their property.

1832年的《改革法案》(也称为1832年的大宪章)废除了"衰败选区";在新兴城镇中较为公平地重新分配了议席;以财产价值为基础给予许多屋主和佃家。

b) The New Poor Law of 1834 forced the poor people into work houses instead of giving them sufficient money to survive in their own homes.

1834年的新贫困法强迫穷人进工厂,而没有给他们足够的钱在自己的家里生存。

3.A People's Charter

人民宪章

There was widespread dissatisfaction with the Reform Act of 1832 and the New Poor Law. In 1836, a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men's Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (a People's Charter) in 1838, with the intention of presenting it to Parliament. It had six points: (1)the vote for all adult males; (2)voting by secret ballot; (3)equal electoral districts; (4)abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament; (5)payment of members of Parliament; (6)annual Parliaments, with a General Election every June.

1832年的《改革法案》和《新贫困法》引起了普遍不满。1836年,一群技术工人和小店主组成伦敦工厂联盟。他们于1838年起草了有关政治要求的宪章(人民宪章),想把它呈送给议会。宪章有六点内容:(1)所有成年男子都有选举权;(2)进行无记名投票;(3)平等选区;(4)议员选举废除财产资格要求;(5)议员应有报酬;(6)议会每年六月进行大选。

4.Results of the Chartist Movement

宪章运动的结果。

Chartism failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-unionism. The working class still immature, without the leadership of a political party armed with correct revolutionary theory. The Chartist movement was, however, the first nationwide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical. Lenin said that Chartism was "the first broad, really mass, politically formed, proletarian revolutionary movement."

由于领导层的软弱和分歧,由于缺少与工会的协调,宪章运动失败了。当时的工人阶级还未成熟,没有正确的革命理论武装的政党领导。但是,宪章运动是第一次全国范围的工人阶级运动,引起了对许多严重问题的关注。在1858至1918年间,六项要求逐渐达到,尽管第六项从未成为现实。列宁说宪章运动是"第一个广泛的、真正群众参与的,有政治组织形式的无产阶级革命运动。"

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2012-02-17 10:37 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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