原题：No.42 Scientists are continually redefining the standards for what is beneficial or harmful to the environment. Since these standards keep shifting, companies should resist changing their products and processes in response to each new recommendation until those recommendations become government regulations.”
The speaker argues that because scientists continually shift viewpoints about how our actions affect the natural environment, companies should not change their products and processes according to scientific recommendations until the government requires them to do so. This argument raises complex issues about the duties of business and aboutregulatory fairness and effectiveness. Although a wait-and-see policy may help companies avoid costly and unnecessary changes, three countervailing considerations compel me to disagree overall with the argument.
First, a regulatory system of environmental protection might not operate equitably. At first glance, a wait-and-see response might seem fair in that all companies would be subject to the same standards and same enforcement measures. However, enforcement requires detection, and while some violators may be caught, others might not. Moreover, a broad regulatory system imposes general standards that may not apply equitably to every company. Suppose, for example, that pollution from a company in a valley does more damage to the environment than similar pollution from a company>in the extreme, to shut down the operation if the company cannot afford abatement measures.
Secondly, the argument assumes that the government regulations will properly reflect scientific recommendations. However, this claim is somewhat dubious. Companies with the most money and political influence, not the scientists, might in some cases dictate regulatory standards. In other words, legislators may be more influenced by political expediency and campaign pork than by societal concerns.
Thirdly, waiting until government regulations are in place can have disastrous effects>EPAmight be overburdened with its detection and enforcement duties, thereby allowing continued environmental damage by companies who have not yet been caught or who appeal penalties.
In conclusion, despite uncertainty within the scientific community about what environmental standards are best, companies should not wait for government regulation before reacting to warnings about environmental problems. The speaker’s recommended approach would in many cases operate inequitably among companies: moreover, it ignores the political-corruption factor as well as the potential environmental damage resulting from bureaucratic delay.
In today's fast-paced world, employers tend to benefit more from younger employers than older ones with experience and wisdom
V1现在快节奏的社会里，公司从年轻的员工身上能够得到更多benefit，compared to 年长的员工
V2 employer benefits more from the energy and new ideas of younger workers than from experience and wisdom of older workers.
因为fossil fuel resources很vital和limited,所以international agreements should be adpoted要求大家reduce dependence on these resources.
V1 As fossil fuel resources are limited and vital, international aggreements should be adopted to require all of the countries to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels.
V2 since fossile fuel vailed and limited, international agreement 要 reduce fuel ...... 问你同意还是不同意
V3 Fossil fuel resources: For the Fossil fuel resources is XXX and limited, 有必要制定一个针对所有国家的 international agreement，来限制各个国家对fossil fuel的依赖。
V4要不要adopt一个international agreement on reducing the dependence on fossil fuel resources。
V5 The fossil energy are vital and limited. International agreement should be adopted for all countries to decrease the dependence on the fossil energy
V6 fossil fuel resources are vital and limited, international agreements should be adopted that would require all the nations reduce the use of fossil fuel.
首先，虽然不愿意，但仍然要承认，自私几乎是天性。self consideration优先。在没有广泛的行动时，每一个国家都不愿意在自己作出牺牲的同时，其他国家没有行动。这样不公平，也不可能达到。这时，领导的作用很重要。安排各国家工作，协调各国家活动。有一个行动的指导作用。function as the leader of the group.
而且，保护资源是全球的问题，指望单个国家作出牺牲是不够的。因为在全球化经济发展下，资源几乎是全球运转的。比如，美国会向中国进口木材等原料。所以需要合作。大的跨国公司在其中扮演重要的角色。比如，开发非洲的，有很多是欧洲的公司，跨国公司的举动会影响到很多国家的经济政策。nuclear weapons proliferation
by the same token, the problem of energy conservation transcends the national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will suffer.
当然，这样是不够的，必须由各个国家充分地发挥主动的作用take positive action。因为资源是全人类的，每个国家都有责任并且都有必要。只有将统一领导与各国的积极性作用一起结合，才是最effective的方法。
International leadership and worldwide cooperation play important roles in the protection of energy resources.
Evidence: OPEC is one of the best examples. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is an international organization of eleven developing countries that are heavily reliant on oil revenues as their main source of income. Since oil revenues are so vital for the economic development of these nations, they aim to bring stability and harmony to the oil market by adjusting their oil output to help ensure a balance between supply and demand. In the long run, the stabilized out-put help to cease the problem of over-refining and over utilization of oil energy.
It is not idealistic to expect the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy independently. Factors other than international leadership and world wide cooperation have driven individual nations to conserve energy. These countries conserve energy purely for their own benefit in the future.
Most nations in Europe have developed and used automobiles that are highly energy efficient.
Japan is a country naturally with nearly no energy resources, so it make great effort to conserve energy for future generations. An famous case is that Japan once brought crude oil from other countries and buried it under the sea .
Sacrifice/ expense/ offering/ cost
Conserve/ protect/ guard/ keep/ maintain
To conserve the energy resources is a worldwide project, however, individual nations have been take the responsibilities of energy conservation initiatively without international leadership.
the most effective leaders are those who maintain the highest ethical standards
原题：No.9 “Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities as separate as possible from the workplace.”
Personal activities should not be brought to one's workplace since they can reduce one's efficiency. Thinking about one's private life can distract one from his or her work.
Talking about private life and doing personal activities can disturb other fellow workers.
It is inevitable for a person to think about his or her private life and to do some personal activities at the workplace. But an employee should do his or her best to focus on the work when at workplace.
It is true that employees can hardly only work like a machine, that is to say, inevitably, they may carry some personal emotions while working. Sharing the personal interests and activities moderately may help build the positive relationship among colleagues.
However, it is not a wise choice to let the employees to bring all their private life and personal activities to the workplace. 仍然举上面的例子来说，a mother worried about her child cannot efficiently focus on her task even if the deadline is coming. a girl who breaks up with her boyfriend during the work time will probably talk to other fellows about the bad emotion, which may have a potentially negative influence on the productivity of the staff. so on… allow personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers.(sample)
Should employees leave their personal lives entirely behind them when they enter the workplace, as the speaker suggests here? While I agree that employees should not allow their personal lives to interfere with their jobs, the speaker fails to consider that integrating personal life with work can foster a workplace ambiance that helps everyone do a better job, thereby promoting success for the organization.
Engaging coworkers in occasional conversation about personal interests and activities can help build collegiality among coworkers that adds to their sense of common purpose on the job. Managers would be well advised to participate in and perhaps even plan the sharing of personal information—as a leadership tool as well as a morale booster. An employee feels valued when the boss takes time to ask about the employee’s family or recent vacation. The employee, in turn, is likely to be more loyal to and cooperative with the boss. Company-sponsored social events—picnics, parties, excursions, and so forth—also help to produce greater cohesiveness in an organization, by providing opportunities for employees to bond with one another in ways that translate into better working relationships.
Admittedly, employees should guard against allowing their personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers. Excessive chatting about non-business topics, frequent personal telephone calls, and the like, are always distracting. And romances between coworkers are best kept confidential, at least to the extent they disrupt work or demoralize or offend other employees. By the same token, however, employees who are too aloof—sharing nothing personal with others—may be resented by coworkers who perceive them as arrogant, unfriendly, or uncooperative. The ill-will and lack of communication that is likely to result may ultimately harm the organization.
In the final analysis, employees should strike a careful balance when they mix their personal lives with their jobs. Although there are some circumstances in which bringing one’s personal life to the job may be counterproductive, for many reasons it is a good idea to inject small doses of personal life into the workplace.
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GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、