business and other organizations 太重视team work. However, it is strong inviduals who gets things down.
原题：No. 36 “Businesses and other organizations have overemphasized the importance of working as a team. Clearly, in any human group, it is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and energy, who gets things done.”
View1: efficiency comes from work divisions. In today’s business world, it is unpractical for one person to accomplish an entire program. Actually, only every competent person finishes one part of the mission, entirely whole program get done.
View2: An organization is not simply put competent people together but combine them to form a organic integrity, thus induce higher efficiency an productivity.
The author's assert brings in the controversail and complex question that is being discussed a lot now : teamwork or individual energy and commitment, which one is more important to a company or other types of organizaitons? The author claims that teamwork has been overemphasized. To the contrary, I believe that is the author who makes an overemphasis by saying "It is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and engergy, who gets things done.
regimentation团队精神 each does his or her own duty technology organic organically
The relationship between teamwork and individual strength, energy, and commitment is complex; whether they operate in a complementary or antagonistic manner depends on: (1) the goals toward which the traits are directed, (2) the degree of emphasis on teamwork, and (3) the job of the individual within an organization.
A person’s ability to work effectively in a team is not in consistent per se with personal strength, energy, and commitment. If exercised in a self-serving manner—for example, through pilfering or back stabbing—these traits can operate against the organization. Conversely, if directed toward the firm’s goals, these traits can motivate other team members, thereby advancing common goals. World War II generals Patton and Rommel understood this point and knew how to bring out the best individual qualities in their troops, while at the same time instilling a strong sense of team and common purpose.
Nevertheless, over-emphasizing teamwork can be counterproductive for an organization. A successful team requires both natural leaders and natural followers; otherwise, a team will accomplish little. Undue emphasis on teamwork may quell initiative among natural leaders, thereby thwarting team goals. Also, teamwork can be overemphasized with a commissioned sales force of highly competitive and autonomic individuals. Overemphasis on teamwork here might stifle healthy competition, thereby defeating a firm’s objectives. In other organizational areas, however, teamwork is critical. For example, a product-development team must progress in lock-step fashion toward common goals, such as meeting a rollout deadline.
In sum, individual strength, commitment, and energy can complement a strong team approach; as long as individual autonomy is not undermined, all can operate in a synergistic manner to achieve an organization’s goals.
V1. the best teachers are those who encourage the students to challenge popular ideas rather than accepting popular ideas.
V2. 最好的老师会expect 学生challenge ideas
V3 Some people think that the best teachers should expect students to
P1.鼓励学生挑战……老师有助于在学生最好的学习的年华develop他们critical & creative thinking,而这些又是科技不断进步的最重要因素
people are more likely be leader are those who can perform the same tasks as he or she want the other want to do 之类的
原题 ：No.33 “People are likely to accept as a leader only someone who has demonstrated an ability to perform the same tasks that he or she expects others to perform.”
normal human feelings admire adore respect superior to evade escape military service subordinate soldier be doubtful of be suspicious of execution implement admittedly true potentially evaluate index leadership psychological psychology psychological psychologist exist subsist ...in ... serves as a fitting and public example
但是，这是否意味着作为领导，必须要有能力完成每一项他要求下属做的事呢?这个问题，与领导和员工的真正作用有很大关系!首先，领导的职责是制定长期的发展方针，并且保证这个方针的贯彻执行，adhere to their strategic plans不被偏离。组织员工共同合作完成任务。on the other hand, 员工的作用是各司其职，更加具体的specific task.
从以上两种职责不难看出，领导与员工起到significantly different functions，让领导完成每一个subordinate要做的工作，unfair的。比如，不能blame a CEO for lacking the skills of typing。要对下属做的事有很好的了解，但不一定都要做。否则，领导就失去了意义，成为了一个全能的工人。omnipotent worker with all kinds of skills.
View1: It is human nature to admire then follow someone who is more competent than themselves.
View2: But a feature of a good leader is to organize people with different specialties together and let them perform as a whole. It is too ideal to expect the leaders to have all the specialties of his subordinates.
People are more likely to accept the leadership of those who have shown they can perform the same tasks they require of others. My reasons for this view involve the notions of respect and trust.
It is difficult for people to fully respect a leader who cannot, or will not, do what he or she asks of others. President Clinton’s difficulty in his role as Commander-in-Chief serves as a fitting and very public example. When Clinton assumed this leadership position, it was well known that he had evaded military service during the Vietnam conflict. Military leaders and lower-level personnel alike made it clear that they did not respect his leadership as a result. Contrast the Clinton case with that of a business leader such as John Chambers, CEO of Cisco Systems, who by way of his training and experience as a computer engineer earned the respect of his employees.
It is likewise difficult to trust leaders who do not have experience in the areas under their leadership. The Clinton example illustrates this point as well. Because President Clinton lacked military experience, people in the armed forces found it difficult to trust that his policies would reflect any understanding of their interests or needs. And when put to the test, he undermined their trust to an even greater extent with his naive and largely bungled attempt to solve the problem of gays in the military. In stark contrast, President Dwight Eisenhower inspired nearly devotional trust as well as respect because of his role as a military hero in World War II.
In conclusion, it will always be difficult for people to accept leaders who lack demonstrated ability in the areas under their leadership. Initially, such leaders will be regarded as outsiders, and treated accordingly. Moreover, some may never achieve the insider status that inspires respect and trust from those they hope to lead.
physical activities are as important as academics.
评论people have duty to disobey laws they consider unjust.
V1 people has a duty to disobey 他们认为unjust 的laws
V2. Should people have the responsibility to disobey the laws that they consider to be unreasonable.
V3. People have the duty to disobey laws that they consider unjust.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、