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ILO: 未来10年全球需6亿就业机会

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小编摘要:国际劳工组织(ILO)称,未来10年,全球面临需要创造6亿个生产性就业机会的紧迫挑战。该组织说,全球劳动力市场在经过持续三年的危机状况之后,需要创造这样多的就业机会以实现经济可持续增长。

ILO: 未来10年全球需6亿就业机会

 The International Labor Organization says the world faces an urgent challenge of creating 600 million productive jobs over the next decade.

It says those jobs are needed to generate sustainable growth after three years of continuous crisis conditions in global labor markets.

2011

The International Labor Organization says the year begins with the world facing a “serious job challenge and widespread decent work deficits.” It’s released its annual report – Global Employment Trends 2012: Preventing a Deeper Jobs Crisis.

The ILO said there is a backlog of global employment of 200 million. At the same time, the report says 400 million new jobs will be needed over 10 years to avoid another rise in unemployment.

“2011 in terms of employment was not a very good year. We still have not recovered from the big economic and financial crisis in terms of job creation. While at the same time all the new crises we’ve seen in 2011 further put pressure on labor markets. So, overall we’ve seen very little improvement. And if it continues like that we won’t be back to pre-crisis levels for a long time,” said Dorothea Schmidt, an ILO senior employment specialist based in Cairo.

Young people continue to be the hardest hit with few near-term job prospects. Nearly 75 million youth, between the ages of 15 and 24, were unemployed in 2011. That’s an increase of more than 4 million since 2007.

Schmidt said, “Young people are usually the last ones to enter labor markets and they are always the first ones to exit them. This has to do with the lack of their experience. It also has to do with the lack of respect that people have for younger people because they always think they are not ready yet to do a good job.”

Also, the jobs that are available are often not in line with the training or education young people have received.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa has done much better than many other regions during the global recession. But Schmidt says despite that, the economic growth has not translated into more decent jobs.

“If we see job growth in many of the economies in sub-Saharan Africa, it only happens in the informal sector. And this is exactly the sector that does not create decent jobs,” she said.

Schmidt said the majority of people in sub-Saharan Africa still work in agriculture. Many are actually unpaid family members. The region has a very high rate of working poor.

“You have a job, but still you live with your family with less than one dollar per person per day. And that is really extreme poverty. And this is really the case for a lot of people in that region. We talk about 38.1 percent of people working, but still living in poverty,” she said.

Arab Spring

Meanwhile, North Africa is also facing a severe shortfall of decent jobs.

“Even before the Arab Spring,” Schmidt said, “there were a lot of challenges regarding labor markets. And now the Arab Spring has put a lot of pressure on economies. We see a very, very slow recovery from the Arab Spring event in terms of economic growth in Egypt. It looks a bit better in Tunisia. But also neighboring countries suffered a lot from it and the recovery is just very, very, very slow.”

The ILO described North Africa as one of the worst places in the world for young women to find jobs. Schmidt blames this on cultural issues and a false belief about women workers.

“If women would work they would take away jobs from men. And given that young men don’t find jobs they try to stop women from entering the labor market. But as a matter of fact, this is never the case. All over the world, if women’s labor force participation rate increases it always goes hand in hand with economic growth. Because, after all, these young women, or even older women, they are producing something. They are contributing to GDP growth,” she said.

GDP, or Gross Domestic Product, is a measure of the goods and services a country produces. Schmidt said for every 100 North African women only 10 have jobs. She describes women as a huge potential for economic growth going unused.

North Africa, like sub-Saharan Africa, has a large percentage of working poor.

The International Labor Organization annual report said job growth is dependent in large part on recovery from the global recession.

Nevertheless, it says there are many things that can be done on the national level to help create highly productive jobs.

For example, providing education and training in line with the job market; creating job centers where employers have easier access to potential employees; and helping entrepreneurs start their own businesses. The ILO also said much more can and should be done in the manufacturing sector to create jobs.

国际劳工组织(ILO)称,未来10年,全球面临需要创造6亿个生产性就业机会的紧迫挑战。该组织说,全球劳动力市场在经过持续三年的危机状况之后,需要创造这样多的就业机会以实现经济可持续增长。

国际劳工组织说,新的一年开始之际,世界正面临“严峻的就业挑战和广泛的体面就业的短缺。” 该组织发布了它的年度报告《2012年全球就业趋势:防止就业危机加深》。

国际劳工组织说,目前全球需要弥补两亿就业机会。与此同时,这份年度报告称,未来10年需要创造4亿个新的就业机会,以避免失业率再次攀升。

多罗西亚·施密特是国际劳工组织驻开罗的高级就业问题专家,她说:“对就业市场而言2011年不是很好的一年。在创造就业方面,我们仍未从严重的经济和金融危机中复苏。与此同时,2011年我们看到的所有新的危机给劳动力市场带来进一步压力。因此,总体而言就业市场的改善微乎其微。如果这种状况继续下去,我们在很长时间内都将无法恢复到危机前的水平。”

年轻人仍是受影响最严重的群体,近期就业前景黯淡。2011年将近有7500万年龄在15到24岁的年轻人失业。自2007年以来年轻人失业人数增加了400多万。

她说:“年轻人常常在就业市场上最后找到工作,而又往往是最先被辞退的人。这是因为他们缺乏经验,也由于人们对年轻人缺乏足够的尊重,常常认为年轻人无法胜任自己的岗位。”

此外,就业市场上的工作岗位和年轻人接受的教育以及培训等经历难以吻合。

施密特说,每100名北非年轻妇女中,只有大约10个人有工作。她说,妇女是经济增长尚未开发的巨大潜力。

和萨哈拉以南非洲一样,北非也有很高比例的就业人群属于贫困者。

国际劳工组织的年度报告指出,就业增长在很大程度上依赖全球经济复苏。但是,报告同时指出,各国政府可以通过自身努力创造有利于增长的就业机会。

比如,按照就业市场的需求提供教育和培训,设立就业中心,方便雇主寻找潜在的雇员,以及帮助创业者自己开拓生意。国际劳工组织说,制造业可以而且也应该有所作为,为经济创造更多工作岗位。

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2012-01-31 23:00 编辑:pliny
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