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2011年9-10月gmat阅读机经(至10.11)(六)

所属:其他考试 作者:cwf1986 阅读:2841 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:词为您收集GMAT机经,充足的准备是考G成功的最重要的一步。

  14、城市规划理论和实践

  [版本1]阅读一篇是讲城市规划理论和实践的,一屏半,基本没时间看,提到F. Florida 和J.J.两个人,F的理论是建立在J的基础上。

  [版本2] by 519329797

  讲城市理论的,两段没看第一段,因为没时间,题也都考的是第二段的,第二段讲一个城市的发展状况,也很简单,最后一篇,明显低分库。。。

  [版本3] by jessette Q50 V35,700

  感脚很变态,估计这篇错了很多。。。讲有个叫Florida的人,他是城市规划的理论家之类的吧,然后他自称他的思想是以Sholock(名字记不清了)之前的理论为ground的,S的主张好像是什么城市要发挥multiple的功能(貌似反对富人扎堆而穷人,然后P2就讲其实F跟S的主张是存在分歧的,P3讲了什么二战后的城市规划什么什么的,而且这个时期的城市规划跟S的主张也是不同的,最后一段有提到什么现在的城市喜欢中心放在museum,institution,商业中心附近的区域,因为这样可以吸引游客之类的。

  [版本 4] by hujp57

  还有一篇那个城市商业发展的 就F的理论是在J的基础之上 然后说一些本应该支持他的组织干嘛干嘛 还举了个例子 接着又开始说J的理论 最后一段忘记了。。。语法不太好 还是少说点 免得误导大家。。。

  [版本 5] by 清明00

  有提到wealth,是讲两派人的观点,第一派J的观点忘记了,第二派人反对,原因1wealth也只是少数人的,2而且这样还会引起经济不稳定什么的。。最后一段有个人说,其实两种观点都是对的,既是什么什么又是什么什么的,不过都太片面了balabala

  问题:从J的观点中可以推断出他怎么怎么样。。(LZ不太确定是不是这一篇,待确定??)

  [版本 6] by richardzi

  城市规划那道题,很长,快两屏幕了,我的第一篇阅读,基本没看懂,后面完全影响心情和pace。。。很惭愧。。。问题蛮难,要了解全文。其中有一道好像是,概念城市的规划者支持下面哪个? 选项有:去除一些地方不能骑车的限制;让自由艺术家在任何地方演奏。自己做的不好,就不误导大家了。

  [版本 7] by yangmengdi V36

  一个是21世纪城市假设论什么的 蛮长的 第一段两个人的观点有考到 再就是1950年那个规划不好 是个claim要选着的

  [版本 8] by haoli1991 V37

  城市规划:FR和JJ两个人的理论,机经里面有,但其实全文JJ是重点,FR只是在第一段提了一下而已,大家需要注意JJ的理论,好像是叫做什么:diversity of the use of the coomon place,这篇我也没怎么读懂,不误导大家了。注意一下这两个人理论的相同点,以及JJ的理论是否有用,貌似这个人的理论没什么用,cities都不采用他的方法。

  [版本9] by symbolicsmile Q51 V40

  (2)4-5段,这一篇特别的长,讲的是建筑文化史。

  第一段提到了两个人,Sprand还有Michelle Jackson,第一个人名我不确定,但是第二名字比较确定,因为当时以为自己独到了Michael Jackson还觉得奇怪。这两个人对于21世纪城市建筑的看法。Sprand这个人说城市应该成为attract skilled worker以及relevant businesses的中心,他的说法也是以economic为中心的。但是Michelle就觉得城市应该将某些建筑成为不同人群共同使用的东西,这里强调说Florida是以Michelle的想法来建设城市的,考古的童鞋们可以好好查一查,确定是Florida。

  第二段着重讲了Michelle的什么看法。提到了1950s的建筑发展运动,说Michelle的想法是对这些运动的reaction。这些运动忽略了将建筑的用途多样化,但其实这种多样化很重要。

  第三段就讲美国的城市开始建造啦,以Michelle这个人的想法为基础,但实际上还是强调了economic factor,忽略了很多人对建筑的需求。

  第四段讲了什么忘记了,不好意思。

  [版本10] by ihe102047960 Math51 Verbal34,710

  还有一篇是讲建筑(似乎又不是) 反正有2个人,讲了一个人继承了另外一个人的理论,但是又没完全按照那个人的做法来做

  然后有一段说有人批评这种做法导致了穷人和富人分开住,加剧社会矛盾?

  绝对2页这一篇,是我的第二个阅读,读了2遍之后没读懂,直接崩溃,4个题目全部都是乱猜的,那个汗啊

  [版本11] by imfred 760

  城市设计那题,Jaccob是基础,他认为城市应该包容多种文化(Cultural Diversity),他的理由是二战以后的城市设计很不成功。而这种设计正好是缺乏了包容性。

  基于Jaccob的基础,F提出城市是以商业为中心并吸引skilled workers。然后文章给了证据证明说20世纪以后的城市设计都是围绕一个文化经济中心,然后缺乏了多样性,与Jaccob所认为的不同。

  [版本12] by zionaru 720

  只记得有一个问题是说那两个建筑家都会AGREE得建设方式有哪个。。我选了改善基础建筑什么的,不过VERbal分这样。。大家酌情吧。。

  [版本13] by 桦的黎明 710 Q50V35

  第二篇,城市规划,我考之前还希望不要碰到这篇,我对这篇完全没头绪。

  我总觉得我理解的非常矛盾,说florida是按照jacob这个人的想法 建的,但是好像后面题目里的意思是将jacob和florida分成两种完全不同的思想了,我真的不适合考阅读。一共三段吧,第一段介绍了jacob相关 的理论,第二段说他的理论怎么来的,第三段说他的理论在应用于实际中的一些问题吧,这段关键词是culture。一题是考到了关于jacob会赞成哪个规 划,我选了不要禁止自行车道的那个。 还有2题主旨题,把我考到崩溃,一道不记得了,另一道好像是问文章的段落结构吧。

  [版本14] by 蒙小灰 M51,V34,710

  有一题,类似问主旨的意思吧,我选的是这两种城市规划的观点都有缺点,无法completely实施(大致意思)

  阅读14 城市规划 参考阅读 How to create a creative city? The viewpoints of Richard Florida and Jane Jacobs

  How to create a creative city? The viewpoints of Richard Florida and Jane Jacobs

  Gert-Jan Hospers and Roy van Dalm

  Gert-Jan Hospers is an assistant professor in economics and strategy at the University of Twente, The Netherlands (E-mail: g.j.hospers@utwente.nl). Roy van Dalm is the Dutch agent of the Richard Florida Creativity Group (E-mail: roy.van.dalm@inter.nl.net).

  Purpose This paper aims to explore in how far policy makers can create a ‘creative city’, that is a urban environment capable of generating creativity, innovation and thus economic growth.

  Methodology/Approach The paper is set up as an interview with Richard Florida and his mentor Jane Jacobs, two of today’s most famous specialists on creative cities.

  Findings The main conclusion from the double interview is that a creative city cannot be built from scratch. However, both Florida and Jacobs argue that it is still possible to build for the creative city.

  Research limitations/implications The paper documents the viewpoints of only two urban specialists whose original views, however, have influenced and will influence the debate on creative cities.

  Practical applications The interviewees in this paper offer illuminating insights and practical clues for policy makers wanting to contribute to the development of a creative city

  Orginality/value This is the first paper documenting an double interview with Florida and Jacobs and shows the complementarity of the views of both urban specialists when it comes to creative cities.

  Keywords Creativity, cities, built environment, policy

  Article type: Viewpoint

  ‘The Creative Economy’, ‘Creative City Awards’, ‘The Creativity Crisis’… if we may believe today’s policy makers and their advisors, we are in the middle of a wholesale socio-economic shift. It seems that we are heading towards a kind of Creative Age, i.e. an age in which creativity is the engine of national, regional and urban economic growth (Landry, 2000; Foster and Kaplan, 2001; Howkins, 2001; Ridderstråle and Nordström, 2004). And because creative people are thought to have creative cities as their habitat, also the role of planning and the built environment is back on the economic policy agenda. In the hope to attract the high talent, a number of cities in the Western world invest in cultural flagship projects, architectural master pieces, leisure centres and the like. This recent interest in creative cities is mainly fuelled by the work of Richard Florida drawing on the ideas of the famous American journalist Jane Jacobs. What do both specialists recommend today’s policy makers that want to contribute to the development of a creative city? Below an account of a double meeting with Richard Florida, on tour in Amsterdam, and his mentor Jane Jacobs, at her home in Toronto[1].

  Florida and JacobsThe ideas of Richard Florida on creative cities are not entirely novel. In many respects, he builds on the work of America’s well-known urban guru Jane Jacobs. Who are both ‘visionaries of the vital city’? (Hospers, 2003a). To start with Richard Florida: this American academic has been H. John Heinz III professor of Regional Economic Development at the Carnegie Mellon University of Pittsburgh. In July 2004 he moved from Pittsburgh to Washington and started lecturing at George Mason University, Virginia. He has also been a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. His book The Rise of the Creative Class was published in 2002. It was an instant bestseller and the prestigious Harvard Business Review has named it one of the breakthrough ideas for 2004. In November 2004 Cities and the Creative Class will be published, the prequel to Rise, consisting of essays, articles and other papers. In March 2005 Florida published The Flight of the Creative Class. The book is dealing with the results ofeconomic globalization and why America, according to him, is losing the competition for talent. After these books on the meso-level (The Rise) and the macro-level (The Flight), Richard Florida intends to focus on the micro-level of the workplace with a third book to be titled The Creative Edge.

  Unlike Florida, Jane Jacobs is not in academia. Jacobs may be in her late eighties but she is still as passionate as ever in her study of cities. Trained as a journalist in New York ‘this little old lady in tennis shoes’ now lives in Toronto where she has written a lot on the ‘hustle and bustle’ of cities. Common sense, close observation and personal experience are the factors guiding her investigations. Her first book The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) is a real classic and reshaped the way urban planners think about their profession. Over the years Jacobs has elaborated her vision on cities as economic engines in The Economy of Cities (1969) and Cities and the Wealth of Nations (1984). Recently, she has explored the philosophical side of life, searching in her books Systems of Survival (1992), The Nature of Economies (2000) and Dark Age Ahead (2004) for the moral foundations of business and societal life. In these works too, however, she continues to insist on the importance of creative cities for socio-economic development: in the end, she says, it is the unplanned chaos of the urban environment that is the driving force behind our welfare and well-being.

  The creative class

  According to Richard Florida, creativity is the ultimate driving force of economic growth. In the industrial age, he states, the ethos of the organisation permeated every aspect of life. But now, more and more people work and live in much the same way as only bohemians or scientists could do in the past. We choose to be mobile and free, we require room for new ideas and working hours that match our flow of thought. In other words, we look for places and conditions that nurture creativity, that is the ability to do new things with existing knowledge. This creativity first of all can be found in what Florida calls the ‘creative class’ – a group consisting of artists, designers, writers, media people, scientists, innovators and entrepreneurs who have one thing in common: they earn their money by means of creative thinking, designing and producing. Creativity, in turn, often results in the Schumpeterian ‘creative destruction’ process, leading to innovation and driving economic growth (see also Hospers, 2003b). Florida’s main point is that the creative vanguard increasingly favours cities and, more specific, cities that match their tastes and interests. Territorial competition thus has become a matter of attracting creative talent looking for cool amenities in the built environment.

  Paradoxically, Florida developed this theory at Carnegie Mellon University in his native old-industrial city of Pittsburgh when he helped to get the city’s impoverished economy out of the dumps. “Some years ago, while going through the newspaper, I read much to my surprise that the internet search engine Lycos, a successful Pittsburgh university spin-off, decided to move to Boston. It didn’t make sense to me why that had occurred. My city, my university and investors had spent fifteen years building this knowledge infrastructure for R&D and start-ups and then your biggest success decides to set up shop elsewhere. And you know what the reason was? Lycos said that Pittsburgh lacked the talent. They wanted to have access to a large pool of creative talent and that was what Boston could offer.” Extensive research into other American cities and interviewing focus groups brought Florida to the conclusion that this new economy was built on creativity which is found in people who favour the city as the place to be. “The cities that prosper economically in my index have a mix of Talent, Technology and Tolerance. These three T’s define the winners in the Creative Age.” There is not only the hardware and technology side to cities, but also the software and talent side, argues Florida. “In the creative economy, cities need a healthy business climate as well as a vibrant people climate. Especially the factor ‘tolerance’ I found is an important condition here. You need low entry barriers to outsiders in order to stimulate the development of new and creative ideas.”

  In Florida’s rankings American urban areas like Boston or Austin and European cities such as Dublin and Amsterdam score high because they mix a vibrant downtown with a technology/university belt and outdoor facilities (see e.g. Florida and Tinagli, 2004). Florida: “The economically most attractive cities of today and the winners of tomorrow are urban areas that offer a combination of all three. The Creative Age is about options. Many people want art galleries, an exciting nightlife and seeing grandma’s on rollerskates go through the park. Do people then take part in all that? No, but the fact is they have the choice to do so. You can just step in, if you want to. In my new book The Flight of the Creative Class, ed. I show what consequences this wish of the creative class for just-in-time culture and multiple choice has on a global scale.” In short, creative people are not slavishly following jobs, but rather look for attractive urban amenities. If you want to produce first quality honey, you don’t start with the beehives. First you find a field where a thousand flowers bloom which in turn attract the bees. Florida: “Avoid copying. Don’t be a Silicon Whatever or a Creative Somewhere. The creative class doesn’t want generic amenities. Creative people look for authentic places that aren’t finished yet, places where you can add something of your own. ‘New ideas often require old buildings’, I learned from Jane Jacobs. Office towers, large-scale conference centers and multifunctional stadiums are boring. The creative class isn’t interested in shopping malls. They are already finished and therefore do not stimulate creativity. The built environment and an area’s people climate should be active and authentic.”

  Building the creative city?

  In propagating the need for attractive cities in the Creative Age, Florida regularly refers to the American journalist Jane Jacobs – meanwhile in her nineties – as his inspiration source. Although her influential books The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and The Economy of Cities (1969) were published in what used to be the Industrial Age, their messages are still alive and kicking. In her first book Jacobs uses her experiences with New York’s neighbourhood Greenwhich Village to plead(恳求) for urban diversity, local uniqueness and community involvement – a vision which is in sharp contrast to the social engineering ideal of many city planners around the world. For Jacobs, urban planning as it is mostly practiced is anything but creative. According to her, the ‘bulldozer approach’ that is popular among a number of city authorities has only resulted in a ‘great blight of dullness(迟钝)’ in the urban landscape. “Just like all cities, creative cities are about people. This means that they cannot be planned from scratch. Creative places in the city are just like living beings: they are born, grow, decay and can rise again. In my view, the streets are the vital organs of the creative city. After all, people meet in the streets and it is here that human contact, unexpected encounters and business life take place. This street ballet contribute to creativity and economic dynamics.’’

  Jane Jacobs is right: ‘great planning disasters’ from the past show that creative cities cannot be straitjacketed by planners behind their desk. The ‘worst practice’ in this context is emgorodok in Russia that was meant as a copy of the Silicon Valley model: from its early beginnings in the 1950s this Siberian ‘city of science’ has been languishing for decades. Still, however, says Jacobs, the built environment can increase the chances that urban creativity will originate. “To show you what I mean by that, just go once around the block in my own neighbourhood, Toronto’s Annex.If you look well, you will discover that there are some conditions in the built environment favouring the generation of urban creativity.” For Jacobs, the key to creative urban environments lies in diversity – both in spatial, social and economic terms. Neighbourhoods must have several functions so that their streets are filled with activity at all times of the day. Monofunctional settings such as business districts and commuter suburbs deprive of the daily vibrance needed for restaurants, culture and retail trade to flourish. In line with this, Jacobs supports short blocks of buildings and a finely meshed street pattern. Pedestrians should be able to walk around and turn into another street from time to time. Next, Jacobs believes that a neighbourhood needs a mix of buildings differing in age and state of upkeep. Buildings both old and new have their own economic value for every type of entrepreneur. Finally, Jacobs pleas for ‘high-dwelling densities’ on a small scale, that is compact neighbourhoods where different types of people –varying from families and entrepreneurs to students and artists – live and work on one spot. With such a variety, there is sufficient critical mass for a varied range of local amenities.

  “You should know that these simple building principles always will pay off economically” Jacobs says. “In diverse urban environments entrepreneurs can benefit from the varied availability of knowledge, know-how and skills. In turn, this cross-fertilisation works as a magnet for other creative people.”Especially the mix of old and new buildings is important for creativity, Jacobs continues, because it gives innovation – in her words ‘adding new work to old’ – a chance to emerge. “In this way, you should know, a modern design office and a classic furniture maker can be neighbours and work together. It is a pity that this economic variety is threatened more and more due to the rising rents of real estate in many cities – even in my beloved Toronto. The result is that local businesses are replaced by chain stores that are the only ones that are able to pay those rents. This more of the same does not favour the creative potential of cities. I am still extremely worried about this development, as you can read from one of the chapters of my new book Darke Age Ahead”.

  Giving co-incidence a handRichard Florida and Jane Jacobs both agree on it: we are witnessing the emergence of the Creative Age. More than ever before, creativity is the engine of economic development. In the end, creativity is about people, their ideas and their tastes. The creative class is highly critical, mobile and prefers attractive, stimulating and vibrant environments to live and work. Thus, the future is not to the classic Nerdistan but rather to the ‘creative city’. As Florida eloquently argues, creative cities are able to combine the T’s of Tolerance, Talent and Technology. In bringing about this creative triad, the built environment may provide a helping hand. Here, we encounter Jacobs who has propagated since long the need for urban diversity: diversity of buildings, people and their economic activities. Among urban planners – often reasoning in terms of demolition and new construction – this view still is not widely accepted though. Does the Creative Age also require Creative Building then?

  Asking both specialists on the general implications of their views for policy makers, planners and real estate agents, they hesitate. Unsurprisingly, their plea(请求) for local uniqueness and specificity is on bad terms with people’s wish for universal and generic recipes. Still, however, they come up with some general advice for public and private parties that are interested in contributing to the creative city. Florida: “Decision makers can play a catalyst role in the economic development of cities by leaving space for temporary experiment in brownfield developments that are often found at the edges of the city center. Think of the Westergasfabriek in Amsterdam or an older project like the IBAEmscherpark in Germany’s Ruhr Area.” In this respect, Jacobs notes: “Such gentrification requires that a neighbourhood must have old and cheap buildings and that people are not bored by them. In general, a place that’s been extremely gentrified(使中产阶级化) will turn out to be a bore as well.” Thus, using old buildings for new, creative purposes always will be a matter of degree.

  Building for the creative city asks for small-scale projects and a lot of patience, Jacobs adds. “Stop the big projects, as they only will lead to urban monotony(单调乏味). And do not strive for instant success. Sometimes it takes years before abandoned urban areas are brought back to life. The future of the city is in rent, in temporariness and in investing in many smaller projects. Accept that some of the projects will fail: one, two or maybe three will be a hit.” Florida agrees with this life cycle character of districts and adds to that “Do not put your eggs in one basket. The most important is that the creative people stay in your city, irrespective in which neighbourhood. That is, if and when the people climate is good. Investing in an attractive neighbourhood is strategically smart, as around the core of creative people there is a circle of creative professionals that exists because of the success of this core. They are the consultancies, business and financial services sector that will need workspace as well.” In short, the best recommendation for cities in the Creative Age is to give co-incidence a helping hand. Policy makers only can foster the chances that urban creativity emerges, or, as Jane Jacobs puts it: “Building the creative city is an illusion, but creativity certainly can benefit from buildings.”

  15、**女权组织

  [版本1]一篇是一个关于女性的League,一共就一段,一屏。其成立的目的是因为在当时因为女权运动神马的反而忽略了女性的生育和育儿的功能,所以为了保护妇女权利有了这么个组织。最后一句提到这个组织的paradox(有题目),印象中这个paradox是因为league的目标和女权某些特征矛盾产生的。

  [版本 2] by 金融小三M51V29 680

  美国某一女性组织

  将美国有一个league 这个league有很久的历史了,主要不是强调女性权利而是强调女性做为女人的义务,比如繁衍与抚养后代,并指出这是女人的核心价值。然而在1860还是1960年,分歧出现了,越来越多的女性走出了家门开始在各个岗位上工作,并有女权运动者指出这个league只是强调了女人的biological differences from man (注意biological difference有高亮题),然后就开是分析到底谁对。这个文章不难,四分之三屏,LZ今天最短的文章了

  [版本 3] by symbolicsmile Q51 V40

  女权组织,一个奇葩的组织呀,名字也很奇葩呀,法语名字,应该叫什么Le XXX的,总共就一段。

  这个组织是1956年建立的,然后想法是说女人应该强调domestic roles。中间描述了这个团体与正统的feminism的观点联系,以及诞生的社会背景(有考题):这个年代出生率下降,女人们都出去工作了。最后总结说这个组织的观点很奇葩(原来作者也这么觉得),不过用的形容词是paradoxical,说一方面,这个组织说女人们应该有自己的dignity,但另外一方面,女人们却应该就呆在家里带孩子。

  [版本 4] byayy90

  妇女组织:这个是那个1956??那个La什么组织,不是女权组织,是主张妇女要自然生孩子,带孩子之类的。之后说还参与了女权运动,收到了影响。考题有这个组织成立是受什么社会因素影响的。

  这个考之前看的那个香港大牛的寂静,意思八九不离十吧,但是生词太多句子太绕,搞不懂啊搞不懂~~

  [版本 5] by stella12cd

  阅读考到了一篇女性XX league的,说关注女性的生育神马的,目的是为了oppose "scientific"对女性生育神马的控制而产生的,但是后来有个feminist movement还是神马说这个league很矛盾,一方面说是关注女性的生育,一方面又限制了女性的权利发展confine those to the little sphere 神马的,有道题是问It is true about the league that, LZ选的是它本身和外界对它的看法不一致,其他的记得不是太清了...

  [版本6] by ki87uj Q50V29

  女权组织,这是最后一篇,当时已经意识到进了低分库了。。。。因为没时间,基本没看文章。1问高亮,biology...好像是问生理特征,我选了contrast to natural..估计错了

  1问主旨,选了这个组织的2个矛盾观点 1问什么事情促使了这个组织提出什么。 。。选项有1960年。。。医学上的什么。。。 抱歉我失忆了,。。怎么也想不起第一篇是哪个了。。。也是JJ上的,想起来再补充

  [版本7] by 桦的黎明 710 Q50V35

  第一篇,anti-suffrage,一开始只看到这个词,但是自己跟jj理解的完全不一样,我估计自己理解错了,所以只能靠自己对JJ的印象做这篇。我 没有明确的看到有什么组织成立,可能自己词汇量太小吧,反正通篇主旨都是说那个组织还是什么的,以伊莉莎白时代的生活方式生活为荣,就是提倡女人就该干女 人应该干的事,不要没事去想投票权的问题。考了三道题吧,不过实在记不清了,我貌似都是照着寂静选的,好像是对的吧,不然自己肯定考不到700。

  [考古]

  第15篇考古

  V1

  La L league

  就一段,一个妇女团体,产生于1960-1970年期间,支持motherhood, 认为女人应该回家带孩子;L-League的产生是因为当时社会舆论正在讨论该不该人工堕胎;这个L-League是反对的;Yet,L-League产生的十年间,妇女工作的人越来越多;结论是L-League 是paradoxical, 虽然提倡女权,但是却支持妇女回家看孩子

  V2

  一个妇女团体,产生于1960-1970年期间,支持motherhood, 认为女人应该回家带孩子;L-League的产生是为了反对医生(好像用的词是physician)的建议(原文为was founded to oppose…,这里有考组织成立的原因),因为当时社会舆论正在讨论该不该人工堕胎,这个L-League是反对的;Yet,L-League产生的十年间,妇女工作的人越来越多(dramatically increase,这里有题,问这段时间发生了什么,答案是取反,在家里工作的女人少了);这个组织的一些观点和女权主义是一致的,女权组织有的声称应承认男女生理上的不同(biological difference),有的有号称应该完全男女平等,与生理差别无关。最后一句大意:The development of Le xxx League went to a paradoxical status: whilethey think women should be at home but they also think women should broadenfields. 结论是L-League 是paradoxical(矛盾的), 虽然提倡女权,但是却支持妇女回家看孩子

  V3

  一个妇女组织于1955年成立。她们认为生育和带孩子是妇女的天然责任,妇女应该回归家庭,但应当享受足够的健康保健。结论是这个组织的观点有矛盾,既强调妇女的权利,有不让她们工作。

  更新:基本同意以上解释,但“应当享受足够的健康保健”好像应该是该组织的目标之一,是为了婴儿的健康保健和相关信息的共享什么的。

  V4

  大意:在1960s, 因为一个什么原因导致了一个组织的成立,提出妇女的role理论。强调妇女的作用是在家里把下一代培养好就行了,这个理论非常反对社会性的妇女同胞(有点不负正业),说这样的role是由妇女的性别特征决定的。后来另外一个什么组织提出了不同的看法。但是他们中有一些共同点

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2012-01-21 14:55 编辑:cwf1986
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