America in Postwar Era (1945-1980s) 二次大战后的美国
1）Origins of the Cold War冷战的起源
①time: began with the ending of the WW II; Causes: caused by conflicts between the U.S. and the S.U. arose basically from their separate concepts of postwar world order; the different policy: During the Cold War, the U.S. government would support any country which said it was fighting against communism. And the Soviet Union believed it should rapidly build up its strength for the final struggle against capitalism.
②George Kennan (proposed the containment policy on February 22,1946)and the containment policy: the containment policy became the official policy towards the Soviet Union until 1989.
2)The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan杜鲁门主义和马歇尔计划。
①the Truman Doctrine: the U.S government should support any country which said it was fighting against communism. It was put forward by the U.S. President Truman in 1947
②The Marshall Plan: In order to protect Western Europe from possible Soviet expansion, the U.S. decided to offer Western European countries economic aid. It was announced by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5, 1947.
3）Effects of McCarthyism (麦卡锡主义1950-1954) of on American society
McCarthy used “big lie”tactic to persecute progressive people. He said he had the names of over 200 Communists in the State Department. His lies caused full-scale, anti-Communist hysteria in America and frightened a large number of ordinary Americans.
4)the postwar boom in the U.S.
Since 1945 the U.S. had entered a twenty-five years economic boom. The cornerstones(支柱产业) were the automobile, housing and defense industries. During this period, the economy grew at an average rate of 3.5 percent per year. The nation’s GNP rose from just over $200 billion in 1946 to close to $1 trillion in 1970. Crucial to the postwar economic boom was the baby boom—the upsurge in births and military spending. More than 63 million babies were born between 1946 and 1961 in the U.S. and this increased consumption.
5)U.S China relations (1949-1972)
①The Taiwan issue and U.S. support of Chiang Kai-shek: the Taiwan problem was been a key problem in U.S –China relations. The U.S. provided Chiang with military aid.
②change in U.S policy towards China from Nixon’visit in 1972
③normalization and remaining problems（关系正常化和现存问题）：Soon after the establishment of diplomatic relations with China in 1979, the U.S. Congress adopted the Taiwan Relations Act(台湾关系法) which violator the spirit of the agreement for the establishment of diplomatic relations.
6)The New Right and their program新右派及其纲领
the New Right consists of two groups of people: the firm believers protestant religious teachings(新教教义) who were concerned with social and moral issues; and the intellectuals who were concerned with political and foreign policy issues. The New Right demanded equal time in school for the teaching of man created by God as opposed to the teaching of evolution(对相反的上帝造人说和进化论实行等学时教育). They opposed abortion(人工流产) and “affirmative action”(在就业及入学方面优侍黑人及其他少数民族的行动。)