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英语国家概况精讲笔记第8讲:美国历史(7)

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小编摘要:做题的同时要打好人文基础哦

America in Postwar Era (1945-1980s) 二次大战后的美国

1)Origins of the Cold War冷战的起源

①time: began with the ending of the WW II; Causes: caused by conflicts between the U.S. and the S.U. arose basically from their separate concepts of postwar world order; the different policy: During the Cold War, the U.S. government would support any country which said it was fighting against communism. And the Soviet Union believed it should rapidly build up its strength for the final struggle against capitalism.

时间:二战结束后;原因:美苏之间的冲突基本源于他们对战后世界秩序的不同想法;不同政策:在冷战期间,美国政府支持任何一个表示反对共产主义的国家。苏联相信必须迅速增强自己的实力,同资本主义做最后的抗争。

②George Kennan (proposed the containment policy on February 22,1946)and the containment policy: the containment policy became the official policy towards the Soviet Union until 1989.

1946年2月22日,美国驻苏联大使乔治。凯南在他的电报中主张对苏联采取遏制政策。此后遏制政策作为美国对苏联的官方政策。

2)The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan杜鲁门主义和马歇尔计划。

①the Truman Doctrine: the U.S government should support any country which said it was fighting against communism. It was put forward by the U.S. President Truman in 1947

杜鲁门主义:美国政府将会支持任何一个表示反对共产主义的国家。这是美国总统杜鲁门1947年提出的

②The Marshall Plan: In order to protect Western Europe from possible Soviet expansion, the U.S. decided to offer Western European countries economic aid. It was announced by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5, 1947.

马歇尔计划:为了保护西欧不受苏联扩张影响,美国决定给予西欧国家经济支援,这是由国务

卿马歇尔于1947.

 3)Effects of McCarthyism (麦卡锡主义1950-1954) of on American society

McCarthy used “big lie”tactic to persecute progressive people. He said he had the names of over 200 Communists in the State Department. His lies caused full-scale, anti-Communist hysteria in America and frightened a large number of ordinary Americans.

麦卡锡用弥天大谎这一伎俩迫害进步改革人士。他声称掌握了200共产党人的名单。他的谎言过于极端,反对共产党人的歇斯底里导致美国民众的极度恐慌。

4)the postwar boom in the U.S.

Since 1945 the U.S. had entered a twenty-five years economic boom. The cornerstones(支柱产业) were the automobile, housing and defense industries. During this period, the economy grew at an average rate of 3.5 percent per year. The nation’s GNP rose from just over $200 billion in 1946 to close to $1 trillion in 1970. Crucial to the postwar economic boom was the baby boom—the upsurge in births and military spending. More than 63 million babies were born between 1946 and 1961 in the U.S. and this increased consumption.

自1945年以来,美国经济进入了长达25年的繁荣期,经济繁荣的基本为汽车,住房和国防工业。这期间,经济以平均每年3.5%增长。国民生产总值从1946的稍高于2千亿美圆增长到1970的近1万亿美元。对战后经济增长至关重要的是生育高峰—出生高峰和军队开支。6350万以上的婴儿在1946-1961年出生。

5)U.S China relations (1949-1972)

①The Taiwan issue and U.S. support of Chiang Kai-shek: the Taiwan problem was been a key problem in U.S –China relations. The U.S. provided Chiang with military aid.

②change in U.S policy towards China from Nixon’visit in 1972

③normalization and remaining problems(关系正常化和现存问题):Soon after the establishment of diplomatic relations with China in 1979, the U.S. Congress adopted the Taiwan Relations Act(台湾关系法) which violator the spirit of the agreement for the establishment of diplomatic relations.

6)The New Right and their program新右派及其纲领

the New Right consists of two groups of people: the firm believers protestant religious teachings(新教教义) who were concerned with social and moral issues; and the intellectuals who were concerned with political and foreign policy issues. The New Right demanded equal time in school for the teaching of man created by God as opposed to the teaching of evolution(对相反的上帝造人说和进化论实行等学时教育). They opposed abortion(人工流产) and “affirmative action”(在就业及入学方面优侍黑人及其他少数民族的行动。)

 

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2012-01-19 08:37 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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