1. The United Kingdom is a unitary, not a federal, state. Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
2. The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; (3) to examine government Policy and administrations, including proposal for expenditure; and (4) to debate the major issues of the day.
The House of Lords 上院
The House of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of Canterbury and Yord and 24 senior bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of 1) all hereditary peers and peeresses of England, Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom(but not peers of Ireland);2)life peers created to assist the House in its judicial duties;3)all other life peers. The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of law-making.
The House of Commons 下院
The House of Commons is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs).It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority for law-making resides.下
1） Parliamentary Electoral System议会选举制
A General Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals. British citizens, together with citizens of other Commonwealth countries and citizens of the Irish Republic resident in Britain, may vote provided they are 1) aged 18 or over,2)included in the annual register of electors for the constituency, and 3)not subject to any disqualification. A candidate must deposit 500 pound.
2）The Political Party System政党体制
Since 1945 either the Conservative Party or the Labour Parth has held power.