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英语国家概况精讲笔记第6讲:向现代英国的过渡(3)

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小编摘要:做题的同时要打好人文基础哦

VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences

Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22,1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.

The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classed coincided with their religious ( Puritan) ideology while the Crown's traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.

由于查尔斯的“君权神授”统治权,他与议会的对质发展成了内战。战争开始于1642年8月22日,结束于1651年。最后查尔斯被处死。

英国内战又称为清教徒革命。这是议会和国王间的冲突,也是城市中产阶级的经济利益与皇室传统经济利益之间的冲突。城市中产阶级经济利益刚好与他们的宗教(清教)思想吻合,相应地,皇室传统的经济利益则与圣公会教的宗教信仰相结合在一起。英国内战不仅推翻了英国的封建制度,而且动摇了欧洲的封建基础。英国内战通常被看作是现代世界史的开端。

The Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell(p.57)

Cromwell was leader of the first civil war against charles I. His famous "Ironside" cavalry and New Model Army(新模范军) defeated the king. After the War he was made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and he instituted direct military rule of the country.

After king Charles I's exection in 1649, Oliver Cromwell and the "Rump"(残余国会)declared England a Commonwealth.There was no king, no House of Lords in England. The Commonwealth ended in 1660 when Charles II became king.

克伦威尔领导了第一次对抗查理1世内战。他著名的铁骑军和新模范军击败了国王。战后同时他成为英伦之岛共和国的护国公,建立直接军队领导制度。当查里一世1649年被处决后,克伦威尔和他的残余国会宣布英格兰为共和国。没有国王和上议院。共和国于1660年查里2世登基结束。

 

The Restoration

王政复辟——1660

When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell's generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late King's son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.

1658年奥利弗克伦威尔去世,他的儿子理查德继任护国公,政权立即开始瓦解。克伦威尔的一位将军乔治蒙克占领伦敦,安排新的议会选举。1660年选出的议会要求上一任国王的儿子长期流亡地法国回国作国王查尔斯二世,从而解决了危机。这就是所谓的王政复辟。

The Glorious Revolution of 1688

1688年光荣革命——1688

In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious views. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.

1685年查尔斯二世去世,由其弟詹姆斯二世继位。詹姆斯二世从小在欧洲流亡长大,是个天主教徒,他希望不放弃个人宗教信仰统治国家。但是1688的英国已不象40年前那样能容忍天主教徒当国王了。英国政客反对詹姆斯二世,他们呼吁信奉新教的国王,奥兰治亲王威谦入侵英国夺取王位。1688年11月15日威廉在托尔比登陆并占领伦敦。这一占领相对平静,既未流血也未处死国王,所以就称为“光荣革命”。


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2012-01-17 08:06 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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