VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences
Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22,1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death.
The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classed coincided with their religious ( Puritan) ideology while the Crown's traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history.
The Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell(p.57)
Cromwell was leader of the first civil war against charles I. His famous "Ironside" cavalry and New Model Army(新模范军) defeated the king. After the War he was made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and he instituted direct military rule of the country.
After king Charles I's exection in 1649, Oliver Cromwell and the "Rump"（残余国会）declared England a Commonwealth.There was no king, no House of Lords in England. The Commonwealth ended in 1660 when Charles II became king.
When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell's generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late King's son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious views. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.