Complete the summary of the reading passage below.
Choose your answers from the box below and write them in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet. There are more words than spaces so you will not use them all.
|checking doctor upbringing inherited reduce cause
treatment throw away unreasonable
obsession control compulsive diagnosis counting
First identify the key words. (These with red background.) Then look for these words in the passage. You will know where to look because you have made predictions using topic sentences and specific details.
Notice the words close to the circled words in the passage. Do they help you complete the summary above?
|Identify the key words in these questions and circle them in the questions and in the reading passage on the next page. Notice the words close to the circled words in the passage. Do they help you complete the questoils below?|
Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage?
In boxes 9-16 write
TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE if the statement contradicts the passage
NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage
9 OCR often results from the way a child is raised.
10 Stress can have an effect on OCR.
11 OCR sufferers are deficient in serotonin.
12 Obsessive-compulsive disorder usually begins after the age of 17.
13 Many OCR patients prefer psychotherapy to medication.
14 OCR is very difficult to treat.
15 Many OCR sufferers keep their problem a secret.
16 Antibiotics can be used to treat OCR.
You should spend 20 minutes on Questions 9-16, which are based on the reading passage below.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCR) is clinically diagnosed as an anxiety disorder and affects up to 4 percent of adults and children. People who suffer from this debilitating disorder have distressing and obsessive thoughts, which usually cause them to perform repetitive behaviors such as counting silently or washing their hands. Though OCR sufferers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic, they find it stressful to put these intrusive thoughts out of their minds. Those who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder develop strict behavioral patterns that become extremely time-consuming and begin to interfere with daily routines. Many people with OCR delay seeking treatment because they are ashamed of their own thoughts and behavior.
OCD sufferers experience worries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress. Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts. The obsession with orderliness and symmetry is also common. In other cases, persistent thoughts are centered on doubts, such as whether or not a door is locked or a stove is turned off. Impulses, such as the urge to swear in public or to pull a fire alarm, are other types of OCR symptoms. to order to be diagnosed with OCR, a sufferer must exhibit obsessions and/or compulsions that take up a considerable amount of time (at least one hour per day).
To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, most OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety. These compulsions can be either mental or behavioral in nature. Common rituals include excessive checking, washing, counting, and praying. Over time, OCR sufferers attach strict rules to their compulsions. For example, a woman who is obsessed with cleanliness might wash her hands three times before having a meal in order to get the thought of the dirty dishes or silverware out of her mind. However, in many cases, the compulsions aren't related to the obsession at all. A man obsessed with the image of dead animals might count silently up to 500 or touch a specific chair over and over in order to block the images. Holding onto objects that would normally be discarded, such as newspapers and empty con-tainers, is another common compulsion.
OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment. A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder, though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly and point to a number of different genetic factors. While studies show that OCR and its related anxiety disorders are often passed down through families, the specific symptoms for each family member are rarely the same. For example, a mother who is obsessed with order may have a son who can't stop thinking about a single word or number.
Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends. In particular, many studies show an overactivity of blood circulation in certain areas of the brain. As a result of this increase in blood flow, the serotoninergic system, which regulates emotions, is unable to function effectively. Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less serotonin than the average person. This type of abnormality is also observed in Tourette syndrome and Attention Reficit Hyperactive Disorder. People who developed tics as children are found to be more susceptible to OCR as well. Many reports of OCR point to infections that can trigger the disorder, namely streptococcal infections. It is believed that a case of childhood strep throat can elicit a response from the immune system that produces certain neuropsychiatric disorders, such as OCR.
Because OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive about their symptoms, they often put off treatment for many years. The average OCR sufferer waits about 17 years before receiving medical attention. As with many anxiety disorders, early diagnosis and proper medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allow people to live fairly normal lives. Most treatment plans for OCR involve a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Both cognitive and behavioral therapies are used to teach patients about their disorder and work through the anxiety. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are prescribed to increase the brain's concentration of serotonin. This medication successfully reduces the symptoms in many OCR sufferers in a short amount of time. For cases when OCR is linked to streptococcal infection, antibiotic therapy is sometimes all that is needed.
|Answer Key 全选可见
Key Words in Statements 9-16: (Answers may vary.) child, stress, serotonin, age 17, psychotherapy, medication, treat, secret, antibiotics
1. unreasonable. Paragraph 1 states that, "OCR sufferers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic."
2. control. Paragraph 1 states that "they find it stressful to put these intrusive thoughts out of their minds.
3. reduce. The first sentence of paragraph 3 states: "To combat excessive thoughts and impulses, OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe will relieve their anxiety."
4. obsession. Paragraph 2 states that "Fear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts."
5. checking. Paragraph 3 states that "Common rituals include excessive checking."
6. throw away. The last sentence in paragraph 3 states that, "Holding onto objects that would normally discarded, such as newspapers and containers, is another common compulsion."
7. inherited. Paragraph 4 states that "a number of different genetic factors" have been found as underlying causes of the disease.
8. cause. Paragraph 5 gives an example of an illness (steep throat) that is thought to be the cause behind some OCR cases.
9. False. Paragraph 4 states: "A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can make the symptoms stronger. The underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly, and point to a number of different genetic factors."
10. True. Paragraph 4 states: "A child's upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can make the symptoms stronger."
11. True. Paragraph 5 states: "Studies have also shown that OCR sufferers have less seeotonin than average person."
12. False. Paragraph 4 states: "OCR symptoms generally begin between the age of 10 and 24 and continue indefinitely until a person seeks treatment."
13. Not Given. Paragraph 6 mentions both psychotherapy and medication but does not discuss which o patients prefer.
14. False. Paragraph 6 discusses different treatment options, and states that, "early diagnosis and pro medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allow people to live fairly normal lives."
15. True. Paragraph 6 begins with this sentence: "Because OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive a their symptoms, they often put off treatment foe many years."
16. True. The final sentence in Paragraph 6 indicates that antibiotics can be used in special cases of OCD "Foe cases when OCR is linked to streptococcal infection, antibiotic therapy is sometimes all that needed."