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灵魂是什么?

所属:生活杂谈 来源:原版英语 阅读:7214 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

小编摘要:一个人由一个灵魂和一个身体组成。而且,那个身体存在于时间和空间中,而那个灵魂则只存在于时间中

灵魂住所

近来科学进步中的最不幸事情之一就是,每一件新成就都让我们对世界的理解比以往更少。当我年轻时,我们都知道,或者我们认为自己知道,一个人由一个灵魂和一个身体组成。而且,那个身体存在于时间和空间中,而那个灵魂则只存在于时间中。至于灵魂是不是可以超越死亡,确实是仁者见仁智者见智,不过灵魂存在的事实应该是无可争议的。对普通人而言,身体的存在是不证自明的,科学家也这么想。而哲学家,则倾向于以这种方式或者那种方式把身体分析得如此疏远,好像身体通常只存在于一个拥有身体的人的精神中或者任何一个恰巧看见那个人的另一个人的观念中。不过,哲学家的这些怪想法并不为世人所重视,而在科学领域,即使是最正统的科学家也是唯物主义的。
One of the most painful circumstances of recent advances in science is that each one of them makes us know less than we thought we did. When I was young we all knew, or thought we knew, that a man consists of a soul and a body; that the body is in time and space, but the soul is in time only. Whether the soul survives death was a matter as to which opinions might differ, but that there is a soul was thought to be indubitable. As for the body, the plain man of course considered its existence self-evident, and so did the man of science, but the philosopher was apt to analyze it away after one fashion or another, reducing it usually to ideas in the mind of the man who had the body and anybody else who happened to notice him. The philosopher, however, was not taken seriously, and science remained comfortably materialistic, even in the hands of quite orthodox scientists.
现在,往时那些简单明了的美景已然消逝。物理学家告诉我们,物质这种东西事实上并不存在,心理学家则声称,世界上根本没有所谓精神。这是前所未有的景象。有谁听到一个补鞋匠自己说,事实上没有靴子这种东西?或者一个裁缝师说,世界上所有人都没穿过衣服?如果他们这么说,也并不比现在的科学家和心理学家说得更怪诞。咱们先看看心理学家,某些心理学家正试图把所有看来是精神的活动划归到身体活动的层次上去。当然,把精神活动归纳到生理活动层次去,也有很多困难。我不相信人们已经有把握确信这些困难是可以克服的,还是根本不可逾越的。我们只能说,到目前为止,所谓的我们的身体是一个真正的科学构造并不与任何物质现实相对应。在此,一个现代的自称为唯物主义者的人,会发现自己陷入一种奇怪的两难境地。一方面,他在一定程度上成功地把自己的心理活动归纳到生理活动中去,另方面,他又没法摆脱这样的事实,即所谓身体其本身只不过是他的意识发明出来的方便解释道理的一个观念而已。这时,我们在一个陷阱里绕圈圈:精神是身体功能的一种外射,而身体不过是精神活动的一个发明。很明显,这不可能是正确的。我们必须找到另外的来源,既不是精神,也不是身体,而无论精神还是身体都能够发源于这个根本。
Nowadays these fine old simplicities are lost: physicists assure us that there is no such thing as matter, and psychologists assure us that there is no such thing as mind. This is an unprecedented occurrence. Who ever heard of a cobbler saying that there was no such thing as boots, or a tailor maintaining that all men are really naked? Yet that would have been no odder than what physicists and certain psychologists have been doing. To begin with the latter, some of them attempt to reduce everything that seems to be mental activity to an activity of the body. There are, however, various difficulties in the way of reducing mental activity to physical activity. I do not think we can yet say with any assurance whether these difficulties are or are not insuperable. What we can say, on the basis of physics itself, is that what we have hitherto called our body is really an elaborate scientific construction not corresponding to any physical reality. The modem would-be materialist thus finds himself in a curious position, for, while he may with a certain degree of success reduce the activities of the mind to those of the body, he cannot explain away the fact that the body itself is merely a convenient concept invented by the mind. We find ourselves thus going round and round in a circle: mind is an emanation of body, and body is an invention of mind. Evidently this cannot be quite right, and we have to look for something that is neither mind nor body, out of which both can spring.
让我们从身体开始。普通人想,物质的东西肯定存在,因为它们很容易为感官所感知。不管其他什么可以被怀疑,一个你猛地碰撞上了的东西,肯定是真实的。这是一个普通人的形而上学。这当然不错。不过,一个物理学家会过来,他会向你展示,你永远也不会碰撞上任何东西,即使你用你的脑袋猛地撞上了一道石墙,你也不会真正地碰上它!当你想你触到一样东西,肯定有一些电子和质子组成了你身体的一部分,这些电子和质子必然被你认为你碰触到的东西里的一些电子和质子所吸引和排斥,但他们之间并不发生真正的接触。你身体里的电子和质子由于接近了那个东西里的电子和质子而被激发,这些激烈运动的电子和质子就发射一种扰动,沿着你的神经系统传导到你的大脑,这些传输的效果就是你脑海里的所谓碰撞的感官感受。即使没有这种接触,通过适宜的实验,也可以把这种感受效果做得十分逼真。那些电子和质子,不过是一种原初的基本的近似性存在,是将一系列的波或者一系列不同事件的统计上的可能性集束在一起的方式而已。这样,物质就显得太过飘渺虚幻,难以像一根现实的棍棒去敲击精神。运动的物质,以往看起来那么不容置疑,现在已经成为一个无法满足物理学需要的观念。
Let us begin with the body. The plain man thinks that material objects must certainly exist, since they are evident to the senses. Whatever else may be doubted, it is certain that anything you can bump into must be real; this is the plain man's metaphysic. This is all very well, but the physicist comes along and shows that you never bump into anything: even when you run your head against a stone wall, you do not really touch it. When you think you touch a thing, there are certain electrons and protons, forming part of your body, which are attracted and repelled by certain electrons and protons in the thing you think you are touching, but there is no actual contact. The electrons and protons in your body, becoming agitated by nearness to the other electrons and protons, are disturbed, and transmit a disturbance along your nerves to the brain; the effect in the brain is what is necessary to your sensation of contact, and by suitable experiments this sensation can be made quite deceptive. The electrons and protons themselves, however, are only a crude first approximation, a way of collecting into a bundle either trains of waves or the statistical probabilities of serious different kinds of events. Thus matter has become altogether too ghostly to be used as an adequate stick with which to beat the mind. Matter in motion, which used to seem so unquestionable, turns out to be a concept quite inadequate for the needs of physics.
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2012-01-16 17:37 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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