原题：The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company:
“When the Apogee Company had all its operations in one location, it was more profitable than it is today. Therefore, the Apogee Company should close down its field offices and conduct all its operations from a single location. Such centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and helping the company maintains better supervision of all employees.”(2)
1. causal oversimplification: It is imprudent to conclude that the establishment of the field offices is the only reason explaining the decline of the profit.
2. all things are equal: The success of the centralization of the past does not guarantee the applicability in the future.
3. either-or-or choice: The author assumes that the centralization and the establishment of field offices are mutually exclusive alternatives, there is no middle ground between they two. In fact, we can have the field offices under centralized control.
V1因为cell phone的原材料金属很贵，且金属的价格此起彼伏dramatically 为了防止其对什么的影响和保护产品的生产线 所以stockholder决定lock in the cost for those materials(没搞懂lock in有啥特别意思)，这样可以把lock in 的savings用作以后来保证产业的高利润(收入)。
V2有个report说手机生产过程需要一些昂贵的稀有金属，类似于金银神马的，厂商说过去十年中他们对金属的需求一直扩大，在此过程中见证了金属价格的大幅的上升与下跌。由于他们预测此后他们对手机的生产仍会扩大对金属的需求将会一直很大，厂商认为此时买下现在生产线上需要的large quantity of metals是明智的，将会lock成本，并且guarantee a high profit in the future.
[V3] 大概就是说有一个叫Cellophone公司作了一个plan，因为过去手机金属原料价格时高时低，现在有一个forecast说以后这个公司的cellphone division要expand而且会有high-volume purchasing，所以说要现在大量买入金属原材料，来lock cost。
V1说一个cell phone manufacturer， 要买一大批很贵的material 因为怕以后买价格会涨
[v2] AA关于手机和贵金属的关系，贵金属现在越来越贵，然后手机制造者要lock cost of metal，然后增加收益
29.3次原题：The following appeared in the letters-to-the-editor section of a local newspaper.
“Muscle Monthly, a fitness magazine that regularly features pictures of bodybuilders using state-of-the-art exercise machines, frequently sells out, according to the owner of Skyview Newsstand. To help maximize fitness levels in our town’s residents, we should, therefore, equip our new community fitness center with such machines.”
1. 杂志和健身中心的marketing strategy不同，不能简单apply杂志的经验，况且人们买杂志可能不是因为器材而是因为上面的运动员
3、 如果是为了body-building的机器很可能不能fitness。比如，cardiovascular fitness。
1、 The bodybuilders may just pretend to be using the state-of-the-art exercise machines while, in fact, their excellent body conditions are due to the use of other types of equipment. And, they just do so for the advertisement purpose.
2、 The circulation is just one of the indicators of the popularity of the magazine. What is more, I can find no direct relationship between the popularity of the magazine and the author's suggestion that we should equip the community with the state-of-the-art excercise machine.
3、 The machines for body building will not necessarily have the same effect on fitness.
In this argument the author concludes that the new community fitness center should be equipped with the state-of-the-art exercise machines featured in Muscle Monthly magazine. In support of this recommendation two reasons are offered: (1) Muscle Monthly contains pictures of bodybuilders using such machines, and (2) Muscle Monthly is a popular magazine, as evidenced by the fact that it frequently sells out at the local newsstand. This argument is questionable on two counts.
First, a major implication of the argument is that the bodybuilders pictured using the machines in Muscle Monthly magazine reached their state of fitness as a result of using these machines. The only evidence offered to support this contention, however, is the pictures in the magazine. It is possible that the bodybuilders pictured use different equipment for their workouts and are merely posing with the machines for advertising purposes.
Second, the author assumes that machines that are suitable for bodybuilding will also be suitable to help maximize the fitness levels of the town’s residents. This assumption is highly questionable. Machines designed to increase muscle development are significantly different from those designed to increase cardiovascular fitness. Consequently, it is unlikely that the machines pictured in the magazine will be of much use to help maximize the fitness levels of the town’s residents.
In conclusion, this argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument the author would have to show that the bodybuilders pictured using the exercise machines actually used the machines to reach their level of muscle development. Additionally, the author would have to show that the machines were suitable for increasing the fitness levels of the persons using them.
30. For computer companies, if introduce the most powerful and advanced information technology, the employee productivity will be increased. Therefore, if our computer company introduce the most powerful and advanced information technology, every single dollar which spent on investing the technology will increase our company's profit margins. 2次
原题：“The more efficient a firm’s employees are, the more profitable that firm will be. Improvements in a firm’s information technology hardware and software are a proven way to increase the efficiency of employees who do the majority of their work on computers. Therefore, if our firm invests in the most powerful and advanced information technology available, employee productivity will be maximized. This strategy ensures that every dollar spent on enhanced information technology will help to increase our firm’s profit margins.”
31. 一个研究表明经常有规律运动的人比不运动的人减少一半去医院地几率，所以提供一个设施良好的体育馆可以redudce about 50% of the group health insurance coverage and achieve a town balance. 2次
The following appeared in a memo to the Saluda town council from the town’s business manager. Research indicates that those who exercise regularly are hospitalized less than half as often as those who don’t exercise. By providing a well-equipped gym for Saluda’s municipal employees, we should be able to reduce the cost of our group health insurance coverage by approximately 50 percent and thereby achieve a balanced town budget.
某银行说不应该给想要开冰欺凌店的local group 商业贷款。因为那个地方很冷，cold weather can mean slow ice cream sales. 然后举了个例，说是那个地方唯一的冰激凌点，尽管没有竞争，去年的net profit还是下降的10%
“We should not approve the business loan application of the local group that wants to open a franchise outlet for the Kool Kone chain of ice cream parlors. Frostbite is known for its cold winters, and cold weather can mean slow ice cream sales. For example, even though Frostbite is a town of 10,000 people, it has only one ice cream spot — the Frigid Cow. Despite the lack of competition, the Frigid Cow’s net revenues fell by 10 percent last winter.”
In this memorandum the loan department of Frostbite National Bank recommends against approval of a business loan to a local group that wants to open an ice creamparlor. In support of this decision the loan department points out that Frostbite has a reputation for cold winters and sales of ice cream decrease in cold weather. This latter point is buttressed by the fact that Frostbite’s only ice cream parlor suffered a 10 percent decline in net revenues the previous winter. The loan department’s decision is questionable for the following reasons.
To begin with, since it is reasonable to expect a decline in ice cream sales during winter months, it is difficult to assess the relevance of the fact that Frostbite has cold winters to the potential success of the Kool Kone franchise. Common sense suggests that this fact would be significant only if it turned out that Frostbite’s winter season lasted 9 or 10 months as it does in arctic regions. In that case slow sales could be expected for most of the year and the loan department’s opposition to the loan would be readily understandable. If, on the other hand, Frostbite’s winter season lasts only a few months and the remainder of the year is warm or hot, it is difficult to comprehend the loan department’s reasoning.
Next, the loan department assumes that the Frigid Cow’s decline in net revenue last winter was a result of slow sales occasioned by cold weather. While this is a possible reason for the decline, it is not the only factor that could account for it. For example, other factors such as poor business practices or lack of inventory could be responsible for the Frigid Cow’s loss of revenue. The loan department’s failure to investigate or even consider these and other possible explanations for the Frigid Cow’s decline in revenue renders their decision highly suspect.
In conclusion, the loan department’s decision is ill-founded. To better evaluate the decision, we would need to know more about the length and severity of Frostbite’s winter season. Moreover, evidence would have to be provided to support the assumption that the Frigid Cow’s loss of revenue last winter was a direct result of the cold weather.
“Currently, more professional accountants use SmartPro accounting software than any other brand. However, in the market for personal accounting software for non-professionals to use in preparing their income tax returns, many of our competitors are outselling us. In surveys, our professional customers repeatedly say that they have chosen SmartPro Software because our most sophisticated software products include more advanced special features than competing brands. Therefore, the most effective way for us to increase sales of our personal accounting software for home users would clearly be to add the advanced special features that our professional software products currently offer.”
一个经理在一次会议说，他们公司的一家厂的drill bits一美元的成本能生产10个他们公司的其他的厂只能生产7个。所以为了减少成本，他们应该将所有的drill bits 的生产放到 那家厂，从而实现longterm goal。
原题： The following appeared in a presentation by the chief production manager of a machine parts manufacturing company at a management meeting:
“Our factory in Cookville is our most advanced and efficient. It is capable of producing ten drill bits for each dollar of production costs, whereas none of our other factories can produce more than seven drill bits per dollar of production costs. Therefore, we can reduce our overall drill bit production costs by devoting the Cookville factory entirely to drill bit production. Since reducing the production costs of individual machine parts is the only way to achieve our larger goal of reducing our overall production costs, dedicating the Cookville factory entirely to drill bit production and shifting all other machine part production to our other factories will help us to attain that larger goal.”
这个argument 的思路绕来绕去就是有three mojor flaws: reduce costs by devoting entirely drill bit production to C; the only way to reduce costs is to reduce production costs; shifting the production of the other parts to other factories is the appropriate way to go
针对这三个 direct or indirect conlusions 写就行了
1: although C produce more bits per dollar, the reason may be that C has high- skilled workers, total new and high- quality machines, or less amounts of orders(订单) thus entirely shifting is fallacious, the results may be that the workers may be too tired and have too much burden, the machines would be worn out, and all this could contribute to the lowering of the productivity
2: the management assumes without further more evidence that reucing the productions costs is the only way to enhance cost -effective production process: 可以train workers , 引进new technologies, 定期维修老旧设备，提高management strategy...
3: 就是转移制造这一部分：也许转移制造之后 cargo and transporting fees would roar因为sporadically 分布的 工厂可以及时供货，集中在一个地方不利于 供货， 而且shifting 牵扯到 搬家的费用：那些cumbersome machine怎么转移啊,人员怎么迁移啊。。。这些都是huge expense, may not weighover the elevation of the productivity
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、