19. “As technologies and the demand for certain services change, many workers will lose their jobs. The responsibility for those people to adjust to such change should belong to the individual worker, not to government or to business (87) 2次
20. Technology ultimately separates and alienates people more than it serves to bring them together。(114)
21. AI The primary goal of schools is to teach the academic skills not to teach the ethnical and social value (23) 4次
22. AI: “It is unrealistic to expect individual nations to make, independently, the sacrifices necessary to conserve energy. International leadership and worldwide cooperation are essential if we expect to protect the world’s energy resources for future generations.”(2)3次
1. To conserve the energy is a world-wide project. No individual country is able to do it independently.
2. It is unfair to let individual nations to make sacrifices while the others do not.
3. The best and the most efficient way is the whole wolrd conserve the energy simultaneously and collectively.
1， 首先，虽然不愿意，但仍然要承认，自私几乎是天性。self consideration优先。在没有广泛的行动时，每一个国家都不愿意在自己作出牺牲的同时，其他国家没有行动。这样不公平，也不可能达到。这时，领导的作用很重要。安排各国家工作，协调各国家活动。有一个行动的指导作用。function as the leader of the group.
2， 而且，保护资源是全球的问题，指望单个国家作出牺牲是不够的。因为在全球化经济发展下，资源几乎是全球运转的。比如，美国会向中国进口木材等原料。所以需要合作。大的跨国公司在其中扮演重要的角色。比如，开发非洲的，有很多是欧洲的公司，跨国公司的举动会影响到很多国家的经济政策。nuclear weapons proliferation
the problem of energy conservation transcends the national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will suffer.(sample上的句子)
3， 当然，这样是不够的，必须由各个国家充分地发挥主动的作用take positive action。因为资源是全人类的，每个国家都有责任并且都有必要。只有将统一领导与各国的积极性作用一起结合，才是最effective的方法。
The speaker asserts that an international effort is needed to preserve the world’s energy resources for future generations. While individual nations, like people, are at times willing to make voluntary sacrifices for the benefit of others, my view is that international coordination is nevertheless necessary in light of the strong propensity of nations to act selfishly, and because the problem is international in scope.
The main reason why an international effort is necessary is that, left to their own devices, individual nations, like people, will act according to their short-term motives and self-interest. The mere existence of military weapons indicates that self-interest and national survival are every nation’s prime drivers. And excessive consumption by industrialized nations of natural resources they know to be finite, when alternatives are at hand demonstrates that self-interest and short-sightedness extend to the use of energy resources as well. Furthermore, nations, like people, tend to rationalize their own self-serving policies and actions. Emerging nations might argue, for example, that they should be exempt from energy conservation because it is the industrialized nations who can better afford to make sacrifices and who use more resources in the first place.
Another reason why an international effort is required is that other problems of an international nature have also required global cooperation. For example, has each nation independently recognized the folly of nuclear weapons proliferation and voluntarily disarmed? No: only by way of an international effort, based largely on coercion of strong leaders against detractors, along with an appeal to self-interest, have we made some progress. By the same token, efforts of individual nations to thwart international drug trafficking have proven largely futile, because efforts have not been internationally based. Similarly, the problem of energy conservation transcends national borders in that either all nations must cooperate, or all will ultimately suffer.
In conclusion, nations are made up of individuals who, when left unconstrained, tend to act in their own self-interest and with short-term motives. In light of how we have dealt, or not dealt, with other global problems, it appears that an international effort is needed to ensure the preservation of natural resources for future generations.
23. As the workplace condition can affect the productivity and morale, the employees have the right to decide the workplace conditions design(68) 4次
1.brings creativity and coziness
2.makes colleagues more closely and companionate
3.Admittedly, some companies such as consulting/consultant? company must avoid too much decoration.
However, no matter the employee or the employer, as for the environment is considered, compromise should be made from time to time.
View1: work character has great influence on the design of workplace.
Evidence: consulting company must avoid too much decoration in order to appear professionally and dependably. To some creative work such as AD agency and fashion design, the decorating of workplace is important not only for simulating inspirations but also for showing creative abilities.
View2: also, the designment of workplace should be compromise to company culture.
Evidence: Consider the influence it has done to co-workers and the harmony in work place.
I agree that physical workspace can affect morale and productivity and that, as a result, employees should have a significant voice in how their work areas are designed. However, the speaker suggests that each employee should have full autonomy over his or her immediate workspace, I think this view is too extreme, for it ignores two important problems that allowing too much freedom over workspace (工作区;工作空间) can create.
On the one hand, I agree that some aspects of workspace design are best left to the individual preferences of each worker. Location of personal tools and materials, style and size of desk chair, and even desk lighting and decorative desk items, can each play an important role in a worker’s comfort, psychological wellbeing, concentration, and efficiency. Moreover, these features involve highly subjective preferences, so it would be inappropriate for anyone but the worker to make such choices.
On the other hand, control over one’s immediate workspace should not go unchecked, for two reasons. First, one employee’s workspace design may inconvenience (v. to subject to inconvenience: put to trouble), annoy, or even offend nearby coworkers. For example, pornographic pinups ([钉在墙上的]偶像，偶像照片[例如裸体女人或影星、歌星的照片])may distract some coworkers and offend others, thereby impeding productivity, fosteringill-will and resentment, and increasing attrition—all to the detriment of the company. Admittedly, the consequences of most workspace choices would not be so far-reaching. Still, in my observation many people adhere, consciously or not, to the adage that one person’s rights extend only so far as the next person’s nose (or ears. or eyes). A second problem with affording too much workspace autonomy occurs when workspaces are not clearly delineated—by walls and doors—or when workers share an immediate workspace. In such cases, giving all workers concurrent authority would perpetuate conflict and undermine productivity.
In conclusion, although employees should have the freedom to arrange their work areas, this freedom is not absolute. Managers would be well-advised to arbitrate workspace disputes and, if needed, assume authority to make final decisions about workspace design.
24.应该在城市街道上装监控相机，这样可以维护法律和帮助捉拿罪犯。 (6) 7次
v1.surveillance cameras 应该安装再、street帮助law enforcemtn officials identify罪犯和逮捕犯人 V2. the surveillance cameras are helpful for the police officials to identify and arrest someone who breaks the law
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、