14. All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service .Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but also the individual participants. (34) 6次
1. 比起专业的公共服务组织，所有的公民都完成一定的公共服务显得比较低效率。因为我们是在一个高度专业化分工十分明晰的社会，放弃专业的公共服务组织而采取强制性的公民义务形式的服务会使得效率十分低下，而且也会让大多数 人不满，毕竟每个人都有自己的职业和爱好。
3. 诚然就象作者所说的那样确实会从整体上给国家带来一定的好处，同时给每个参与的人提供和更多人交流等机会，但是在权衡利弊之后尤其是在和专业化组织对比之后还是得不偿失的be not worth the candle mandatory compulsory ...be weighed against ...
individual compliance enforcement nullify stifle incompetence competent tantamount to 等价 insofar as...
1. 对于国家和社会的好处：首先，强制性mandatory social work可以增加人力资源——因为social work的wage比较低，所以在非强制的情况下，只有少数人愿意参加，这样导致了人员的不足;广泛的参与extensive participation可以引起大家的重视——激发人们更加爱护公共设施,从而降低整个expense on the maintaining. 因为公共设施becomes a aggregation of the hard work of all the citizens. 人们不付出努力,就不会珍惜
2. 对参与者的好处: The principal thing in this world is to keep one’s soul aloft. Flaubert(the great novelist)公共服务可以使人们更加意识到自己的社会责任感duty, 也同时有益于平时的工作; 可以增加人与人的交流, 在完全没有压力的环境下, 心灵得到放松.
3. 当然, 完全强制有可能引起stimulate抵触emotion of repellence, 也要注意方法,同时不要影响正常的工作.
View1: public service, a main approach to show social responsibilities, benefits both the county and the participants.
View2: When becomes a burden and stress to the participants, public service harm not only individual performers but also entire society. Cost of enforcement, reduction of efficiency, increase of abhorrence.
The potential benefits of mandatory public service must be weighed against administrative problems and concerns about individual liberty. On balance, the costs to a nation and to the participants would probably exceed the benefits.
Admittedly, a colorable argument can be made for mandatory public service. It would help alleviate “free-rider” problems, where those who do not contribute benefit from the efforts of those who do. It would mitigate pressing social problems—with education, public health and safety, and the environment. It might instill in participants a sense of civic duty, community, and individual responsibility. Finally, it has worked on a smaller scale, particularly in urban areas, where renewal projects succeed in making communities safer, healthier, and more prosperous.
Far more compelling, however, are the arguments against mandatory public service. First, who would make assignments and decide what projects are worthwhile, and how would compliance be assured? Resolving enforcement issues would require government control, in turn requiring increased taxes and/or cuts in other social programs, thereby nullifying the benefits of mandatory public service. Second, a mandatory system would open the floodgates to incompetence and inexperience. Finally, the whole notion seems tantamount to Communism insofar as each citizen must contribute, according to his or her ability, to a strong state. Modern history informs us that such systems do not work. One could argue that mandatory public service is simply a tax in the form of labor rather than dollars. However, compulsory labor smacks of involuntary servitude, whereas financial taxes do not.
In conclusion, logistical and philosophical barriers to mandating public service outweigh its potential benefits for the nation as well as for participants.
15. People are likely to accept as a leader only someone who has demonstrated an ability to perform the same tasks that he or she expects others to perform.”(33) 6次
1. 人们不会尊重一个不能完成他要求别人完成的任务自己却不能完成的领导。这是人之常情，人们通常都只会欣赏和尊敬比自己优秀的人，而不喜欢被一个不能完成任务却命令自己去做的人心存敬意。例如克林顿总统当commander-in-chief 的时候，由于众所周知他曾经逃避兵役，很自然的下级军官和士兵都不是很尊重他。
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1. 诚然，如果在其领导的领域内几乎一窍不通，一个领导很难得到下属的信任和支持，会被看作layperson. 比如，人们无法想象一个不具备任何电脑知识的人，该如何领导一个庞大的IT企业，比如MICROSOFT在激烈的市场中竞争。
2. 但是，这是否意味着作为领导，必须要有能力完成每一项他要求下属做的事呢?这个问题，与领导和员工的真正作用有很大关系!首先，领导的职责是制定长期的发展方针，并且保证这个方针的贯彻执行，adhere to their strategic plans不被偏离。组织员工共同合作完成任务。on the other hand, 员工的作用是各司其职，更加具体的specific task.
3. 从以上两种职责不难看出，领导与员工起到significantly different functions，让领导完成每一个subordinate要做的工作，unfair的。比如，不能blame a CEO for lacking the skills of typing。要对下属做的事有很好的了解，但不一定都要做。否则，领导就失去了意义，成为了一个全能的工人。omnipotent worker with all kinds of skills.
View1: It is human nature to admire then follow someone who is more competent than themselves.
View2: But a feature of a good leader is to organize people with different specialties together and let them perform as a whole. It is too ideal to expect the leaders to have all the specialties of his subordinates.
范文：People are more likely to accept the leadership of those who have shown they can perform the same tasks they require of others. My reasons for this view involve the notions of respect and trust.
It is difficult for people to fully respect a leader who cannot, or will not, do what he or she asks of others. President Clinton’s difficulty in his role as Commander-in-Chief serves as a fitting and very public example. When Clinton assumed this leadership position, it was well known that he had evaded military service during the Vietnam conflict. Military leaders and lower-level personnel alike made it clear that they did not respect his leadership as a result. Contrast the Clinton case with that of a business leader such as John Chambers, CEO of Cisco Systems, who by way of his training and experience as a computer engineer earned the respect of his employees.
It is likewise difficult to trust leaders who do not have experience in the areas under their leadership. The Clinton example illustrates this point as well. Because President Clinton lacked military experience, people in the armed forces found it difficult to trust that his policies would reflect any understanding of their interests or needs. And when put to the test, he undermined their trust to an even greater extent with his naive and largely bungled attempt to solve the problem of gays in the military. In stark contrast, President Dwight Eisenhower inspired nearly devotional trust as well as respect because of his role as a military hero in World War II.
In conclusion, it will always be difficult for people to accept leaders who lack demonstrated ability in the areas under their leadership. Initially, such leaders will be regarded as outsiders, and treated accordingly. Moreover, some may never achieve the insider status that inspires respect and trust from those they hope to lead.
16. The rise of multinational corporations is leading to global homogeneity*. Because people everywhere are beginning to want the same products and services, regional differences are rapidly disappearing. (71) 6次
17. A society should be measured by its scientific and artistic achievements rather than by its business successes.(96) 4次
18. a powerful business leader has more opportunity to influence a community or a nation than some government forces(24) 4次
1. 每一个政府官员都很难自己做出决策。每一个政令的颁布表面上仿佛是由一个人宣布的，其实背后的程序过程都是十分繁杂的。seperation of the three powers(the legislative, executive and judicial powers) In this work he argued that the three powers a state has are the Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial and that for a state to remain democratic, these powers must be separated and there must be checks and balances to prevent a single group from acquiring control over two or more of them.
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on balance=with all things considered admittedly opportunity commerce commercial check-and-balance system 制约平衡制度 scandal illuminate illumination luminous lumination technic technical technology technician technological entity equity seems to pale next to...
Yet the impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
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1. Admittedly, 领导人的作用有时不象企业家一样apparent. 因为国家的发展，人们的生活，与企业closely related. 比如GATES，领导了信息产业革命;Rockefeller，控制国家的石油命脉took control of American oil supply。企业家通过影响企业的行为，从而直观上影响人course of a community.
2. 但是，企业的一切影响is based on its existence, which is permitted by the government. 政府制定各种policy来允许企业的存在，企业家的一切行为需要被政府允许才能产生作用。
3. Moreover, 影响一个国家，需要强大的power, which can be only generated from absolutely authority. 这样的绝对权力是企业不具备的。Yet even a cursory review of the history reveals substantial evidence that it is the government leader rather than the business leader that can make the pivotal decision when the nation is in crisis. 比如，在经济recession，企业的力量无法使经济好转，revive the economy of the whole nation, 只有政府运用行政措施，制定positive policy to stimulate the companies and thus the economy of the whole nation. 比如Roosevelt. Bill Clinton. financial policy
View 1: Unlike business leader, government power is likely to subject to many more restraints. Our check-and-balance system, the legislation influence and the voting power are all factors that temper the power of government official to the course of a community or a nation. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold the actual legislative and judicial power by their financial supporting of official activities such as governmental elections.
View2: While take more thorough consideration, the government official is likely to have more direct and broad influence on a community and a nation.
Evidence: various approach to influence other than financial approach
In addition the governmental official have the abilities to regulate commerce,
Historical examples of both influential public officials and influential business leaders abound. However, the power of the modern-era business leader is quite different from that of the government official. On balance, the CEO seems to be better positioned to influence the course of community and of nations.
Admittedly the opportunities for the legislator to regulate commerce or of the jurist to dictate rules of equity are official and immediate. No private individual can hold that brand of influence. Yet official power is tempered by our check-and-balance system of government and, in the case of legislators, by the voting power of the electorate. Our business leaders are not so constrained, so, their opportunities far exceed those of any public official. Moreover, powerful business leaders all too often seem to hold de facto legislative and judicial power by way of their direct influence over public officials, as the Clinton Administration’s fund-raising scandal of 1997 illuminated all too well.
The industrial and technological eras have bred such moguls of capitalism as Pullman, Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Gates, who by the nature of their industries and their business savvy, not by force of law, have transformed our economy, the nature of work, and our very day-to-day existence. Of course, many modern-day public servants have made the most of their opportunities—for example, the crime-busting mayor Rudolph Giuliani and the new-dealing President Franklin Roosevelt. Yet their impact seems to pale next to those of our modern captains of industry.
In sum, modem business leaders by virtue of the far-reaching impact of their industries and of their freedom from external constraints, have supplanted lawmakers as the great opportunists of the world and prime movers of society.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、