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英语国家概况精讲笔记第4讲:美国历史(3)

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小编摘要:做题的同时要打好人文基础哦

6)Consequences of territorial expansion and the westward Movement 领土扩张和西进运动

①forced England to give up the Old Northwest;迫使英格兰放弃旧西北地区

②Purchased the Louisiana from Nepoleon.(1790’s) 向拿破伦购买路易斯安那州

③forced Spain to cede Florida and the Gulf coast.迫使西班牙放弃弗罗里达和墨西哥海岸。

④Texas added to the Union(1845).1845,德克萨斯加入联邦

⑤Obtained California and New Mexico From Mexico by the war with Mexico (1846-1848)从墨西哥战争1846-4848,得到加利福尼亚和新墨西哥。

⑥The Gadsden Purchase(1853)

another 30,000 square miles of Mexican land were added to the territory of the U.S., in return,the U.S. paid 10 million dollars.1853年的‘加滋登购地’中,又有3万平方英里的墨西哥变成了美国领土,美国付了1千万美圆的补偿。

7)The American Civil War and its impaction on the development of the U.S 美国内战

①The conflict between the North and the South: In the early 1800’s, black slavery disappeared in the north because of industry development. But it continued to exist in the South. In the South, farming remained the most important way of making a living and the planter farmed a large area of land. Slave labors seemed best suited for producing these crops.19世纪早期,由于工业的发展,黑奴在北方消失。但在南方仍然存在。在南方,农耕是最主要的谋生手段,农场主耕种了大片土地。奴隶劳动力似乎最适于这些农作物的生产。

②The Compromise of 1850: the North and the South allowed California to be accepted as a free state while ordering the returning of runaway slaves to the masters.1850年通过了一个折中的方案:同意加利福尼亚为自治州,将逃跑的努力归还主人。

③Abraham Lincoln (亚伯拉罕. 林肯):Soon after Lincoln Became the U.S. President, the War broke out on April 12, 1861.He realized that he could win support for the Union at home and abroad by making the war a just war against slavery. So he issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.Thus England and France stood by the Union’s side. Many black slaves joined the Union Army. 亚伯拉罕. 林肯:当林肯成为美国总统后,1861.4.12爆发战争,他意识到可以把战争变为反奴隶的正义战争,从而获得国内外对联邦的支持。所以他颁布了著名的《解放宣言》。这样英法各国站到了联邦一边,许多黑奴加入了联邦军。

Lincoln’s speech: “That government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”民有,民治,民享的政府是不会从地球上消亡的。The Thirteenth Amendment, which banned slavery, was added to the Constitution in December,1865.废除奴隶制的第十三修正案于1865年12月写入宪法。

④Rapid Growth of Capitalism after the Civil War 内战后资本主义的迅速发展

After the war, the U.S. saw great developments in Industry, agriculture, science and technology, and population.

⑤reasons: a stable political environment after the war was over; enough labour supply after black slaves were free; new immigrants; Science and invention played a very important role in accelerating America’s industrial development; the federal government put high taxes on foreign imports; the Rich natural resources.原因:战后稳定的政治环境;黑奴自由,新移民都提供了足够的劳动力;科学和发明在美国的工业发展中起到重要作用;联邦政府对进口商品课以高税,丰富的自然资源。

⑥consequences: Both production and capital became increasingly concentrated.生产和资本越来越集中。


 

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2012-01-12 19:30 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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