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英语国家概况精讲笔记第3讲:美国历史(2)

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小编摘要:做题的同时要打好人文基础哦

4)The American War of Independence and its consequences.美国独立战争极其影响

①the causes: With the development of economy, the people in the colonies wanted more power to determine their own business. But the policy of the British government was to bring the development under control and collect more taxes from the colonies

.原因:随着经济的发展,殖民地人民要求更多的自决权。而英国政府的政策是要把经济发展控于股掌,并向殖民地征收更多的税。

②the Boston Tea Party(波士顿茶叶事件): In 1773, several dozen Boston residents dressed as Indians boarded the ships of the British East India Company and threw the tea into the harbor.

1773年,几十名波士顿居民化装成印第安人,登上英国东印度公司的船,将茶叶倾入海中。

③the First continental Congress: In September 1774, the First Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia which encouraged Americans to refuse to buy British goods. 第一届大陆会议:1774年9月,在费城召开,鼓励美国人抵制英货。

④Lexington and Concord(列克星顿和康克特):The War of Independence began at there in 1775.

⑤The Second Continental Congress(three weeks after the battle at Lexington in 1775 ):founded a  Continental Army and Navy under the command of Washington; appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration(Thomas Jefferson was the man who draft it), the Declaration of Independence, And adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

第二次大陆会议(1775年的列克星顿战役三周之后):建立了大陆军和海军,任命华盛顿为总司令;指定了一个委员会负责起草一份正式宣言(托马斯。杰斐逊起草),1776.6.4,通过了独立宣言。

⑥The Declaration is a clear explanation of the political theory behind the revolution and this theory came from the British philosopher John Locke.

宣言清晰地解释了指导这场革命的政治理论,这一理论源于英国哲学家约翰。洛克。

⑦The consequences: IN September ,1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognized the independence of the United States; the war was from 1775 to 1781, it shows that, in a just war, a weak nation can defeat a strong one. American people gained independence and capitalism developed in America. It also had great international influence.意

义:1783年9月,《巴黎条约》签署,英国承认美国独立;战争从1775-1781,表明,在一场正义的战争中,弱者可以战胜强者。美国人民获得了独立,资本主义得到发展。同时具有深远的国际影响。

5)Establishment of a federal form of government: 联邦政府的建立

①The Articles of Confederation was unusual in many ways.1)it provided for no king;2)while the Articles created a central government in the form of a Congress, the emphasis was still on state powers.3)the Articles of Confederation was a written constitution for the U.S.. But there were serious weaknesses, it was difficult to carry on the business of the government without someone to do the executive’s job. Congress was too large a body to function as government. And Congress had no power to raise taxes. A conference was held in Philadelphia in May 1787 to consider what should be done to make the Articles of Confederation adequate.

 十三洲联邦宪法的不同之处在于:1)没有采用君主立宪制;2)确立了国会形式的中央政府,但仍以洲治为主;3)是美国的明文宪法。但也存在严重缺陷:无人主持行政工作,政府事务很难执行。国会体制庞大,无法起到政府职能,国会无权提高税收。1787年5月于费城召开了一次大会,讨论如何改进十三洲联邦宪法。

②The Great Compromise(on July 16,1787): gave each state an equal vote in the Senate but making representation in the House reflect the size of each state’s population.1787.7.16出台的大折中:赋予各州在参议院中同样的选举权,而众议院中的代表人数则根据各州的人口决定。

③The Bill of Rights (1791),became the first ten amendments to the constitution of the American constitutional—the Bill of Rights. By then, it is agreed, the foundation of the American constitutional system was completed.1791年通过的,成为对《宪法》最早的十项修正案—人权法案。一般认为至此美国宪法体制的建立全部完成。

④the first Congress: met in New York In 1789.

the first President: Washington


 

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2012-01-11 19:27 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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