4）The American War of Independence and its consequences.美国独立战争极其影响
①the causes: With the development of economy, the people in the colonies wanted more power to determine their own business. But the policy of the British government was to bring the development under control and collect more taxes from the colonies
②the Boston Tea Party(波士顿茶叶事件): In 1773, several dozen Boston residents dressed as Indians boarded the ships of the British East India Company and threw the tea into the harbor.
③the First continental Congress: In September 1774, the First Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia which encouraged Americans to refuse to buy British goods. 第一届大陆会议：1774年9月，在费城召开，鼓励美国人抵制英货。
④Lexington and Concord(列克星顿和康克特)：The War of Independence began at there in 1775.
⑤The Second Continental Congress(three weeks after the battle at Lexington in 1775 ):founded a Continental Army and Navy under the command of Washington; appointed a committee to draft a formal declaration(Thomas Jefferson was the man who draft it), the Declaration of Independence, And adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.
⑥The Declaration is a clear explanation of the political theory behind the revolution and this theory came from the British philosopher John Locke.
⑦The consequences: IN September ,1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed. Britain recognized the independence of the United States; the war was from 1775 to 1781, it shows that, in a just war, a weak nation can defeat a strong one. American people gained independence and capitalism developed in America. It also had great international influence.意
5)Establishment of a federal form of government: 联邦政府的建立
①The Articles of Confederation was unusual in many ways.1)it provided for no king;2)while the Articles created a central government in the form of a Congress, the emphasis was still on state powers.3)the Articles of Confederation was a written constitution for the U.S.. But there were serious weaknesses, it was difficult to carry on the business of the government without someone to do the executive’s job. Congress was too large a body to function as government. And Congress had no power to raise taxes. A conference was held in Philadelphia in May 1787 to consider what should be done to make the Articles of Confederation adequate.
②The Great Compromise(on July 16,1787): gave each state an equal vote in the Senate but making representation in the House reflect the size of each state’s population.1787.7.16出台的大折中：赋予各州在参议院中同样的选举权,而众议院中的代表人数则根据各州的人口决定。
③The Bill of Rights (1791)，became the first ten amendments to the constitution of the American constitutional—the Bill of Rights. By then, it is agreed, the foundation of the American constitutional system was completed.1791年通过的，成为对《宪法》最早的十项修正案—人权法案。一般认为至此美国宪法体制的建立全部完成。
④the first Congress: met in New York In 1789.
the first President: Washington