Elizabeth I and parliament
(1)Elizabeth I was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. She was able to work with Paliament.She avoided troubling Parliament too often for pounds by making strict economies at Court.But the relationship was often turbulent. Because Parliament demanded that its right of free speech be confirmed in writing and it be allowed to discuss all important questions at will. Elizabeth I did not agree to their demands.
Elizabeth's religious reform and her foreign policy
Elizabeth's religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary's ties with Rome and restored her father's independent Church of England,i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. His religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.
For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England was able to face the danger from Spain.
IV. The English Renaissance
Distinctive features of the English Renaissance
1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics;
2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe;
3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them;
4) English Renaissance literature is primarily artistic,rather than philosophical and scholarly; 5)the Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.