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英语国家概况精讲笔记第5讲:向现代英国的过渡(2)

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小编摘要:多做题的前提下还要打好坚实的基础哦

III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

伊莉莎白一世(1558年-1603年)

Elizabeth I and parliament

(1)Elizabeth I was the last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty. She was able to work with Paliament.She avoided troubling Parliament too often for pounds by making strict economies at Court.But the relationship was often turbulent. Because Parliament demanded that its right of free speech be confirmed in writing and it be allowed to discuss all important questions at will. Elizabeth I did not agree to their demands.

为了避免经常向议会索要资金,伊莉莎白在王室内部制定了严格的节约制度。但是,她与议会的关系也经常不稳定。因为议会需要用文字形式对言论自由的一般权力加以确定,同时希望可以随时对重要问题进行讨论。伊不同意他们的要求。

Elizabeth's religious reform and her foreign policy

伊莉莎白的宗教改革和外交政策

Elizabeth's religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary's ties with Rome and restored her father's independent Church of England,i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. His religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics.

For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England was able to face the danger from Spain.

伊莉莎白的宗教改革是对不同观点的妥协。她中断玛丽与罗马的关系,恢复她父亲在位时独立的英格兰教会,也就是说保持天主教教条及习俗,但不受教皇控制。她的宗教定论既不被以清教徒知名的新教极端分子所接受,也不为虔诚的天主教徒所接受。

近30年的时间,伊莉莎白成功挑起了两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相斗杀,从而免于英国卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。通过她从未具体化的联姻,伊莉莎白设法与法国维持友好关系,因此英国能面对来自西班牙的危险。

 

IV. The English Renaissance

英国文艺复兴

Distinctive features of the English Renaissance

英国文艺复兴的特点

1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics;

2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe;

3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them;

4) English Renaissance literature is primarily artistic,rather than philosophical and scholarly;  5)the Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England.

英国文艺复兴的五个特点:1)英国文化的复兴直接受古典作品影响不大,更大的影响来自于受古典作品熏陶的当代欧洲人;2)由于英国是一个岛国家,其社会和政治历史进程与欧洲其他国家相去甚远;3)由于14世纪伟大的天才诗人乔叟的出现,英国本国文学得以蓬勃发展,能够在吸收外国文学影响的同时,并未处于从属地位;4)英国文艺复兴文学主要是文艺方面而不是哲学的和学术方面;5)文艺复兴和英格兰的宗教改革正好同步。

 

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2012-01-13 10:15 编辑:Day_Day_Up1990
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